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Table 2 Description of non-empirical and review studies (N = 14)

From: A scoping review of de-implementation frameworks and models

Author, year Setting Topic/content area De-implementation intervention Primary action Secondary action Evidence for de-imp. Cost Stakeholder Method Study design
Amankwah-Amoah, 2017 [51] Industries (broad) Technological lifecycle Describe the lifecycle of a product, ultimately leading to discontinued use of a technology Remove Replace NR Y N Non-empirical Commentary
Bain et al., 2008 [52] Clinical Medication discontinuation Recognize indication for discontinuing medication; identify medication for discontinuation; discontinue; monitor patient Remove NA Ineffective Y Y Non-empirical Case example; commentary
Bauer, 2014 [53] Legislative bodies (broad) Environmental (air pollution, water protection, wildlife protection); social (child benefits, pension, unemployment) policy change Public policy dismantling (including strategies) Remove NA NR Y N Non-empirical Literature summary; commentary
Davidson et al., 2017 [54] Clinical Behavior change Broad cycle of identifying low-value practice, plan and execute de-implementation, evaluate consequences, plan for new practice implementation Remove Replace NR Y Y Non-empirical Commentary
Helfrich et al., 2018 [37] Clinical De-implementation of low-value or ineffective clinical practices (broadly) Unlearning an active process and substitution of an alternative practice Reduce; replace NA Ineffective N Y Non-empirical Commentary
Herald et al., 2009 [55] Systems (broad, primary example military) Technological lifecycle Discuss 6 components of obsolescence management: technology road mapping, system costing, system obsolescence life cycle forecasting, technology trade study analysis and product selection, technology/product surveillance and health assessment, technology transition Replace NA NR Y N Non-empirical Commentary
Hyun-Ju et al., 2016 [56] Healthcare system (broad) Healthcare technology reassessment Strategies to reassess and manage obsolete medical technologies Reduce; replace Remove Mixed Y Y Review Systematic review
Kirkpatrick et al., 1999 [26] Public policy Public policy termination Consider political environment, policy characteristics, and system constraints Reduce, remove NA NR Y Y Non-empirical Conceptual
Niven et al., 2015 [57] Clinical Low-value clinical practices Selected and tailored deadoption intervention Remove Reduce Ineffective, contradicted Y Y Review Scoping review
Norton et al., 2019 [58] Clinical Cancer care delivery De-implementation strategies (at patient, provider, setting, societal levels) Reduce, remove replace, restrict NA Ineffective, contradicted, mixed, untested N N Non-empirical Commentary
Prasad, 2014 [23] Healthcare system (broad) Contradicted, untested, novel healthcare practices Factor prioritization for testing unproven practices Remove NA Untested Y N Non-empirical Commentary
Scott et al., 2013 [59] Clinical Polypharmacy in older populations Behavior change (begin using discontinuation guide) assess for deprescribing Remove NA Ineffective, contradicted Y Y Non-empirical Commentary
Soril et al., 2020 [60] Healthcare system (broad) Healthcare technology Policy process (selection, decision, execution, reassessment) Reduce Remove Ineffective, contradicted Y Y Non-empirical Commentary (literature summary, environmental scan, workshop)
  1. Note: N no, NA not applicable, NR not reported, Y yes