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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Dissemination interventions to improve healthcare workers’ adherence with infection prevention and control guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Year Design Participants Sample (n) Interventions Comparator Outcomes Funding Declaration of interest
Combined strategies versus usual activities
 Borgey 2019 [32] 2014–2015 Cluster RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients 1336 Educational materials, opinion leaders, vaccine Usual activities Vaccination uptake None None
 Ho 2012 [33] 2009–2010 Cluster RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients 810 WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy Usual activities Hand hygiene compliance Centre for Health Protection None
 Jeihooni 2018 [34] 2016 RCT Nurses in contact with patients 120 Educational materials and meetings Usual activities Knowledge on hand hygiene None None
 Lehmann 2016 [35] 2014 RCT Healthcare workers 122 Educational materials and meetings, vaccination appointment and reminder Usual activities Vaccination uptake Abbot Health Care Products B.V. None
 Martin-Madrazo 2012 [36] 2009 Cluster RCT Healthcare workers 170 WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy Usual activities Hand hygiene compliance Ministry of Health of Spain None
 Mertz 2010 [37] 2007–2008 Cluster RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients a WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy, opinion leaders Usual activities Hand hygiene compliance Physicians’ Services Incorporated Foundation of Ontario, Swiss National Service Foundation None
 Riphagen-Dalhuisen 2013 [38] 2008–2010 RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients 50,351 Educational materials and meetings, vaccine Usual activities Vaccination uptake The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development None
 Rothan-Tondeur 2011 [39] 2005–2006 RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients 2874 Educational materials and meetings Usual activities Vaccination uptake None Five out of 8 authors are consultants or received grants from pharmaceutical industry
 Yeung 2011 [40] 2007 Cluster RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients 188 WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy Usual activities Hand hygiene compliance Chinese University of Hong Kong and Vickmans Laboratories None
Combined strategies versus usual single strategies
 Doratotaj 2008 [41] 2004–2005 RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients 800 Educational materials and meetings, vaccine Educational materials Vaccination uptake The Cleveland Clinic Foundation None
 Huis 2013 [42] 2008–2009 Cluster RCT Nurses in contact with patients 886 WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy, local opinion leaders WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy Hand hygiene compliance The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development None
 Schmidtke 2020 [43] 2018–2019 RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients 7540 Educational materials, reminders, performance monitoring Reminders Vaccination uptake National Institute for Health Research None
 Stewardson 2016 [44] 2009–2014 Cluster RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients a WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy, enhanced feedback, performance monitoring WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy Hand hygiene compliance Swiss National Science Foundation None
 Suppan 2020 [45] 2020 RCT Healthcare workers in contact with patients 173 Educational material and game Educational material Knowledge on IPC None None
  1. Note: IPC infection prevention and control, RCT randomized controlled trial, WHO World Health Organization
  2. aNumber of healthcare workers not reported (opportunities of hand hygiene were measured)