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Table 3 Summary of psychometric properties reported for each scale

From: Psychometric properties of leadership scales for health professionals: a systematic review

Title Face validity Content validity Construct validity Criterion validity Internal consistency Test-retest reliability Responsiveness Acceptability/ feasibility Revalidation/ cross-cultural Convergent Discriminant
Aspiring leaders in Healthcare - Empowering individuals, Achieving excellence, Developing Talents (AHEAD) [60] (Allied Health Professionals) Y N* U Y Y
Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI) [61] (Nurses) Y Y Y
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire (Polish language version) (ALSAQ-P) [62] (Registered Nurses) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Authentic Nurse Leadership Questionnaire (ANLQ) [63] (Registered Nurses) Y U Y Y
Charismatic Leadership Socialised Scale (adaptation for Brazilian culture) [64] Y Y N N N
Clinical Leadership Needs Analysis Instrument (CLeeNA) [65] (Registered Nurses) Y Y Y (only subscales reported)
Clinical Leadership Survey (CLS) [66] (Registered Nurses) Y Y Y N Y
Clinician Safety Culture and Leadership Questionnaire [67] (Physicians, Nurses, Allied Health Professionals) Y N Y (only subscales reported) N Y U U
Cotter Preceptor Selection Instrument (CPSI) [68] (Nurses) Y Y Y Y (only subscales reported) Y
Director of Nursing Survey: Importance of Role Competencies [69] (Directors of Nursing) Y Y Y (only subscales reported) Y
Evidence-Based Practice Nursing Leadership Scale [70] (Registered Nurses) Y Y Y Y  
The Evidence-Based Practice Nursing Leadership Scale (Chinese Adaptation) [71] (Registered Nurses, Senior Nurses, Nurse Supervisors or above) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership (HEAL) [72] (Health professionals (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, radiology)) Y N
Human Capital Competencies Inventory (HCCI) [73] (Nurse Managers) Y Y Y Y
Human Capital Sustainability Leadership Scale (HCSLS) [74] (Leaders from public and private health and care organisations) N* Y (only subscales reported) Y
iLead [75] (Health professionals (primary, psychiatric, rehabilitation, acute hospital care, and others) Y Y N* Y Y Y Y
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [76] (Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Professionals) N Y (only subscales reported) Y U
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [77] (Child Welfare Workers) Y Y (only subscales reported)
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [78] (Registered Nurses) Y Y Y Y
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [79] (Mental Health Supervisors) N Y (only subscales reported) Y Y
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [19] (Mental Health Clinicians) Y Y Y Y Y Y
Kuopio University Hospital Transformational Leadership Scale (KUHTLS) [80] (Nurses) N Y Y Y
The Leadership and Management Inventory (LaMI) [81] (Registered Nurses, Healthcare Personnel) Y Y Y (only subscales reported)
Leadership Behaviour Description Questionnaire (Modified Version) [82] (Paramedical Professionals) U Y (only subscales reported)
Leadership Competency Inventory (LCI) [83] (Nursing Homes and Hospitals) Y Y Y Y
The Leadership Influence Over Professional Practice Environments Scale [84] (Health professionals: Vice President, Chief Nurse, Associate Chief Nurse) Y Y Y
Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) (3-factor) [43] (Nurses) Y Y Y
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) [85] (Registered Nurses) Y Y Y  
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (6-factor) [86] (Nurses) Y Y Y Y (only subscales reported) N
Nurse Leadership and Organisational Culture (N-LOC) Questionnaire (2-factor) [87] (Nurses) Y N* Y N U U U
Quantum Leadership Scale [88] (Nurse Administrators) Y Y Y
Questionnaire on Self-Perception of Nurses of Exercise of Leadership (QUAPEEL) [89] Y Y Y
Spiritual Leadership Questionnaire (SLQ) [90] (Nurses) Y Y N* Y Y Y Y Y
Supportive Leadership Behaviours Questionnaire (SLB) [91] (Nurses, Head Nurses) Y Y Y Y Y Y
Supportive Supervisory Scale (SSS) [92]
(Healthcare Aides)
Y Y U Y Y
Survey of Transformational Leadership (STL) [93] (Substance Use Workers) Y Y Y Y Y (only subscales reported) Y
Sustainment Leadership Scale (SLS) [94] (Child Welfare Workers) Y Y Y N Y
Unnamed Leadership Questionnaire for (Dental Practitioners) [95] Y N Y (only subscales reported)
Unnamed Scale Developed for the Study (Hospital Nurses) [96] Y Y Y (only subscales reported)