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Table 2 Characteristics of study sample for assessed scales

From: Psychometric properties of leadership scales for health professionals: a systematic review

Scale name Measures Scale details Country Sample size Response rate Gender of participants Profession of participants
Aspiring leaders in Healthcare - Empowering individuals, Achieving excellence, Developing talents (AHEAD) [60] Self-evaluated leadership competency in existing and emerging AHP leaders. • 25 items
• Likert (5-point)
•2 Domains: Values (inc. 9 subdomains; e.g., Commitment; Compassion, Integrity) and Skills (inc. 16 subdomains; e.g., Creativity; Talent Management; Writing)
Singapore 106 Not reported Females = 68% Allied Health Professionals
Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI) [61] Employee’s perspectives on their managers’ authentic leadership characteristics. • 14 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 5 Domains: Self-Awareness; Balanced Processing; Moral/Ethical Behaviour; and Relational Transparency
USA n = 85 Not reported Not reported Nurses
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ-P) [62] Self-evaluated authentic leadership. • 16 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 4 Domains: Self-Awareness; Internalised Moral Perspective; Balanced Processing; Relational Transparency
Poland n = 3299 Not Reported Female = 98.5% Registered Nurses
Authentic Nurse Leadership Questionnaire (ANLQ) [63] Self-evaluated authentic leadership in nurse leaders. • Item number not specified
• response scale not specified
• 5 Domains: Self-Awareness; Moral Ethical; Relational Integrity; Shared Decision Making; Caring
USA n = 309 Not reported Female = 94% Registered Nurses
Charismatic Leadership Socialised Scale [64] Charismatic leadership in nurse managers. • 143 items
• Likert (7-point)
• Two parts:
1. Behaviour of the manager: Dimensions of the Charismatic and Instrumental Leadership
2. Behaviour of employees: Size of Commitment and Satisfaction, Motivation and Team Effectiveness
Brazil n = 211 Not reported Female = 81.5% Registered Nurses
Clinical Leadership Needs Analysis (CLeeNA) [65] Self-reported leadership needs of nurses and midwives. •103 items
•Likert (7-point)
•7 Domains: Self and Team Development; Staff and Care Delivery; Technology and Care Initiatives; Financial and Service Management; Leadership and Clinical Practice; Patient Safety and Risk Management; and Standards of Care
Ireland n = 321 ~ 14.7% Female = 91% Registered Nurses
Clinical Leadership Survey (CLS) [66] Self-evaluated clinical leader behaviours in staff nurses (basis in transformational leadership). • 41 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 5 Domains: Challenging the Process; Inspiring a Shared Vision; Enabling Others to Act; Modelling the Way; and Encouraging the Heart
Canada n = 480 41% Female = 97% Registered Nurses
Clinician Safety Culture and Leadership Questionnaire [67] Clinician report of safety culture in hospitals at organisational and departmental levels, across teamwork, safety climate and leadership in healthcare. • Clinician report
• 35 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 3 Domains: Perceived Quality of Collaborating between Clinicians; Organisational Commitment to Patient Safety and Management Style; and Effectiveness of Healthcare Leaders in their Workplace
Australia n = 1134 Not reported Female = 39% Physicians
Nurses
Allied Health Professionals
Cotter Preceptor Selection Instrument (CPSI) [68] NPD practitioner perceptions of nurse attributes to assist nurse preceptor selection. • 14 items
• Likert (3-point)
• 10 Domains: Clinical Competence; Nursing Process; Transformational Leadership; Collaboration/Communication Skills; Professional Development; Conflict Resolution; Commitment; Flexibility; Empowerment; and Values
USA n = 13 Not reported Not reported Nurses
Director of Nursing Survey: Importance of Role Competencies [69] DON’s Perceived importance of DON role competencies. • 28 items
• Likert (6-point)
• 5 Domains: Transformational Leadership Forces; Structural Empowerment Forces; Exemplary Professional Practice Forces; New Knowledge, Innovation, and Improvements Force; and Empirical Quality Outcomes Force
China n = 208 69% Female = 99.5% Directors of Nursing
Evidence-Based Practice Nursing Leadership Scale [70] Staff nurse perceptions of support provided by unit level nurse managers to engage in EBP. • 10 items
• Response scale not specified
• Item examples: ‘My manager provides time for me to engage in EBP’ and ‘My manager makes sure that I have access to relevant research on my unit’
USA n = 422 24% Not reported Registered Nurses
Evidence-Based Practice Nursing Leadership Scale (Chinese adaptation) [71] (As above) (As above) China n = 419 96% Female = 96% Registered Nurses
Senior Nurses
Nurse Supervisors or above
Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership (HEAL) [72] Self-evaluated leadership competency based on the core principles of patient centeredness. • 24 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 5 Domains: Critical Thinking; Emotional Intelligence; Teamwork; Selfless Service; and Integrity
USA n = 126 63% Female = 50% Health professionals (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, radiology)
Human Capital Competencies Inventory (HCIC) [73] Self-evaluated capital sustainability leadership attributes. • 16 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 4 Domains: Ethical Leadership; Sustainable Leadership; Mindful Leadership; Servant Leadership
USA n = 99 45% Not reported Nurse Managers
Human Capital Sustainability Leadership Scale (HCSLS) [74] Self-evaluated capital sustainability leadership attributes. • 16 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 4 Domains: Ethical Leadership; Sustainable Leadership; Mindful Leadership; Servant Leadership
Italy EFA n = 207
CFA n = 274
Not reported Female = 65% Leaders from public and private health and care organisations
iLead [75] Employees’ perspectives on their managers’ active and passive implementation specific leadership attributes. • 20 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 2 Domains: Active Leadership; and Passive Leadership
• Active Leadership Subdomains: Exemplary Behaviours; Individualised consideration; Intellectual Stimulation; and Contingent Reward
• Passive Leadership Subdomains: Passive Management-by-Exception’ and Laissez-Faire
Sweden n = 336 75% to study, of those 41% answered scale Female = 90% Health professionals (primary, psychiatric, rehabilitation, acute hospital care, and others)
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [19] Clinician reports of strategic leadership attributes in supervisors, specific to EBP implementation. • 12 items
• Likert (5-point)
• Domains: Proactive Leadership; Knowledgeable Leadership; Supportive Leadership; and Perseverant Leadership
USA n = 459 80% Female = 79% Mental Health Clinicians
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [76] (As above) (As above) USA n = 323 Not reported Female = 63% Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Professionals
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [77] (As above) (As above) USA n = 214 93% Female = 92% Child welfare workers
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [78] (As above) (As above) USA S1 n = 200
S2 n = 284
Not reported Not reported Registered Nurses
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) [79] (As above) (As above) USA n = 136 88% Female = 76% Mental health supervisors
Kuopio University Hospital Transformational Leadership Scale (KUHTLS) [80] Nurse staff reports of manager’s/unit director’s transformational leadership attributes. • 47 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 7 Domains: Decision; Appreciation; Growth; Justice; Performance; Individuality; and Administration
Cyprus n = 315 79% Female = 49% Nurses
Leadership and Management Inventory (LaMI) [81] Self-evaluation by superiors and/or subordinates of leadership skills and abilities of first-line nurse managers. • 56 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 6 Domains: Organisation and Assignment; Information and Communication; Social Skills and Interpersonal Relations; Development and Support of Subordinates; Co-operation; and Analysis and Decisions
Sweden S1 n = 149
S2 n = 197
S1 = 50%
S2 = 87.5%
Not reported Registered Nurses
Healthcare Personnel from unspecified professions
Leadership Behaviour Description Questionnaire (Modified Version) [82] Subordinate’s preference for specific behaviours from their leaders. • 15 items
• Likert (5-point)
• Leadership behaviours and organisational commitment
India n = 50 Not reported Not reported Paramedical Professionals
Leadership Competency Inventory (LCI) [83] Self-reports from either individual staff members or managers on perceived degree of importance and development need for listed job competencies. • 32 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 5 Domains: Personal Mastery; Managing Processes; Managing Resources; Leadership; and Managing Relationships
USA n = 323 Not reported Not reported Nursing homes and hospitals
Leadership Influence over Professional Practice Environments Scale [84] Leaders’ perceptions of their influence over the PPEs they oversee. • 59 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 6 Domains: Collegial Administrative Approach; Internal Strategy and Resolve; Authority; Access to Resources; Leadership Expectations of Staff; and Status
USA n = 150 Not reported Female = 70% Health Professionals (Vice president, chief nurse, associate chief nurse)
Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) [43] Original LPI recommended when used as an educational tool. Original LPI
• 30 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 5 Domains: Challenging the Process; Inspiring a Shared Vision; Enabling Others to Act; Modelling the Way; and Encouraging the Heart
Canada n = 67 61% Not reported Nurses
Newly derived LPI recommended for use in nursing research to measure leadership practices of established and aspiring nurses. Newly Derived LPI
• 27 items
• Likert (10-point)
• 3 Domains: Cognitive; Behavioural; Supportive
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire [85] Both leader self-evaluation and subordinate evaluation of their supervisor’s transformational, active and passive leadership attributes. • 78 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 9 Domains: Idealised Influence (Attributed); Idealised Influence (Behaviour); Inspiration Motivation; Intellectual Stimulation; Individualised consideration; Contingent Reward; Active Management-by-Exception; Passive Management-by-Exception; and Laissez-Faire Leadership
Canada n = 378 38% Female = 94% Registered Nurses
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire [86] (As above) (As above) Finland n1 = 423
n2 = 78
n1 = 73% Female = 95% Nurses
Nurse Leadership and Organisational Culture (N-LOC) [87] Self-reported attributes of leadership style and organisational culture. • 62 items
• Likert (7-point)
• Domains: Leadership Style; and Organisational Culture
Hong Kong n1 = 295
n2 = 1146
n1 = 63%
n2 = 72%
n1 Female = 89%
n2 Female = 88.5%
Nurses
Quantum Leadership Scale [88] Nursing administrators’ quantum skills, leadership characteristics and functions. • 37 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 3 Domains: Quantum Skills; Quantum Leaders’ Characteristics; and Quantum, Leaders’ Functions
Iran n = 25 100% Female & Married = 80% Nurse administrators
Questionnaire on Self Perception of Nurses of Exercise of Leadership and (QUEPTAEEL) Questionnaire on Perception of Nurse Technicians and LPNs of Exercise of Leadership (QUAPEEL) [89] Perception of leadership practice and coaching processes from the perspective of leaders (nurses; QUAPEEL) and followers (nurse technicians and LPNs; QUEPTAEEL). Both Scales:
• 20 items
• Likert (6-point) and open- and closed-ended questions
• Knowledge about leadership; and questions regarding abilities/attitudes of leaders/followers in coaching leadership practice
Brazil n = 887 Not reported Not reported Nurses
Nurse Technicians
Spiritual Leadership Questionnaire [90] Nurses’ spiritual leadership attributes. • 35 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 8 Domains: Vision; Faith and Hope; Altruism; Inner Life; Calling; Membership; Organisational Commitment; and Productivity
Iran n = 400 91% Female = 75.5% Nurses
Supportive Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire [91] Supportive leadership behaviours. • 20 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 4 Domains: Support for Development; Integrity; Sincerity; and Recognition
Iran n = 731 94% Not reported Head nurses
Nurses
Supportive Supervisory Scale [92] Supervisory support and ability to develop and maintain positive relationships. • 15 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 2 Domains: Respects Uniqueness; and Being Reliable
Canada n = 22 Not reported Not reported Healthcare Aides
Survey of Transformational Leadership [93] Approaches to the conceptualization and measurement of transformational practices • 84 items
• Likert (5-point)
• 5 Domains: Idealised Influence; Intellectual Stimulation; Inspirational Motivation; Individualised Consideration; and Empowerment
USA n = 214 Staff = 62%
Leaders = 57%
Female = 63.5% Substance Use Workers
Sustainment Leadership Scale (SLS) [94] Sustainment leadership attributes in first-level leaders and staff perceptions of leadership during sustainment. • 12 items
• Likert (5-point)
• Four Domains: Proactive Leadership; Knowledgeable Leadership; Supportive Leadership; and Perseverant Leadership
USA n = 157 95% Not reported Child Welfare Workers
Unnamed leadership questionnaire for dental practitioners [95] Good and poor leadership. • 61 items
• Likert (7-point)
• Domains: Challenges the notion of leadership domains and uses two constructs: Good Leadership and Poor Leadership
Turkey n = 237 23% Female = 40% Dental Practitioners
Unnamed scale developed for study [96] Organisational culture, leadership behaviours and job satisfaction. • 60 items
• Likert (5-point)
• Domains: Organisational Culture; Leadership Behaviour; Job Satisfaction
Taiwan n = 200 67% Female = 99.5% Nurses