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Table 2 Facilitation strategies used by change facilitators to overcome common implementation barriers in community pharmacy

From: Data-driven approach for tailoring facilitation strategies to overcome implementation barriers in community pharmacy

Strategy category to overcome barrier* Facilitation strategies within category Most common barriers overcome using this strategy category (PRP)a
Empower stakeholders to develop objectives and solve •lems • Stimulate critical inquiry/ critical reflection
• Utilise think-aloud process
• Utilise brainstorming techniques
• Outlining opportunities presented by change
• Conduct a needs analysis
• Conduct a Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis
• Use prioritisation techniques
• Introduce goal-setting (SMART goals)
• Use consensus-building/shared decision-making
• Providing solutions/advice
• Create/ recommend the creation of a monthly or annual plan
• Ensure win/win goals (mutually beneficial solutions)
• Use an action planner tool
• Use a mind-mapping tool
• Discuss/ outline best practices
• An inability to plan for change (80.64%)
• A lack of internal supporters of the change (73.44%)
• A lack of individual alignment with the change (83.13%)
• Undefined change objectives and lack of objective feedback (80.55%)
• A lack of time (62.25%)
Engage stakeholders by creating ownership of the change • Establish/ allocate roles
• Delegate responsibilities
• Allocate primary champion and/or supporting champions
• Define key performance indicators
• Ask for commitment to the agreed changes
• Encourage collaboration and teamwork
• Recommend or aid in conducting a performance review
• Allocate roles based on skills/ interests
• Emphasise the importance of delegating
• An inability to plan for change (84.23%)
• A lack of internal supporters of the change (78.29%)
• A lack of individual alignment with the change (49.38%)
Equip stakeholders with training • Provide/recommend skills/technical training
• Provide knowledge training
• Conduct/ recommend role-playing/role modelling
• Bringing subject matter expert
• Refer to external formal education/training
• Using case studies
• Use a staff scoping and training tool
• Encourage discussion of training topic as a group
• Create/adapt training plan
• Determine training gaps
• Encourage self-learning (e.g reading of journals)
• A lack of knowledge and experience related to the change (93.44%)
• An inability to plan for change (83.30%)
Adapt area of focus to meet change needs • Adapt task allocations by creating a roster to align with change
• Improve workflow by adapting layout to cater for change
• Adapt vision/mission to align for change
• Review roles to align with change requirements
• Create time-tabling (annual, monthly or weekly time tables)
• Adapt business strategy plan to the change
• Adapt image of organisation towards new changes
• Create/adapt communication plan to new changes
• Adapt process/procedures to new changes
• Encourage regular communication amongst participants to ensure everyone is aligned to new changes
• An inability to plan for change (81.17%)
• A lack of time (79.09%)
Create buy-in amongst stakeholders • Ask about individual concerns regarding the change
• Address specific individual concerns related to the change
• Motivate group/individuals using stories
• Compare audit results to network benchmarking results
• Emphasise enhanced customer outcomes as opposed to poor practice
• Outline negative impacts to lack of implementation (using evidence/opinion)
• Outlining benefits of implementation (using evidence/opinion)
• A lack of individual alignment with the change (82.86%)
• A lack of internal supporters of the change (57.90%)
Create a collaborative environment conducive to change • Organise or conduct meetings (face-to-face)
• Lead virtual meeting (coach present digitally e.g. webinar or skype)
• A lack of knowledge and experience related to the change (99.80%)
Feedback progress of implementation measures • Provide constructive feedback
• Acknowledge success/recognise/celebrate achievements
• Provide ongoing encouragement
• A lack of monitoring and feedback regarding the change (99.12%)
Ensure stakeholders contribute to the change • Acknowledge ideas
• Encourage knowledge/experience sharing
• Involve others in the change process
• Acknowledge the importance of individuals’ roles
• A lack of individual alignment with the change (98.79%)
Ensure continuous monitoring of implementation measures • Monitor financial impact
• Measure and monitor customer outcomes
• Monitor service provision
• Monitor Staff measures
• Emphasise ongoing monitoring by stakeholders
• Monitor agreed upon plan/objectives
• Display progress chart
• A lack of monitoring and feedback of the change (68.09%)
Communicate the change to stakeholders • Inform the entire group of the change and objectives verbally
• Inform individuals of the change and objectives verbally
• Inform using a visual display such as poster
• Inform using a written document (email, letter, etc).
• Undefined change objectives and lack of objective feedback (62.83%)
  1. *The strategy categories were adapted from the taxonomy of facilitation strategies (Dogherty et al.)
  2. a PRP is the predictive resolution percentage is based on random forest which uses data collected by change facilitators indicating whether the extent which the strategy is predicted to resolve the barrier