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Table 1 Facilitation categories used to overcome common implementation barriers in community pharmacy

From: Data-driven approach for tailoring facilitation strategies to overcome implementation barriers in community pharmacy

Most common barriers to implementing professional services in community pharmacy^ Strategy categories* used by change facilitators to overcome implementation barriers The predictive resolution percentage of the strategy category resolving the barrier (PRP)a
An inability to plan for change (n=184) Engage stakeholders by creating ownership of the change 84%
Equip stakeholders with training 83%
Adapt area of focus to meet change needs 81%
A lack of internal supporters of the change (n=128) Engage stakeholders by creating ownership of the change 78%
Empower stakeholders to develop objectives and solve problems 73%
Create buy-in of the change amongst stakeholders 58%
A lack of knowledge and experience related to the change (n=84) Create a collaborative environment conducive of change 99%
Equip stakeholders with training 93%
A lack of monitoring and feedback of the change (n=61) Feedback implementation progress 99%
Ensure continuous monitoring of implementation measures 68%
A lack of individual alignment with the change (n=49) Encourage participation and facilitate discussions amongst stakeholders 99%
Empower stakeholders to develop objectives and solve problems 83%
Create buy-in of the change amongst stakeholders 83%
Undefined change objectives and lack of objective feedback (n=46) Engage stakeholders by creating ownership of the change 82%
Empower stakeholders to develop objectives and solve problems 81%
Communicate the change to stakeholders 63%
A lack of time (n=43) Adapt area of focus to meet change needs 79%
Empower stakeholders to develop objectives and solve problems 62%
  1. ^A total of 1131 barriers were identified across the 19 pharmacies throughout the 2-year period
  2. *The strategy categories were adapted from the taxonomy of facilitation strategies by Dogherty et al.
  3. 111 facilitation strategies were coded into 16 facilitation categories; the strategies within each of the above-mentioned categories can be found in Table 2
  4. aPredictive resolution percentage is based on a data-driven approach named decision forest which used data collected by change facilitators indicating whether each strategy resolved the barrier or not