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Table 1 Summary of the evaluation aspect data collection methods based on the conceptual framework guided by Hasson [15] and Grant et al. [23]

From: Implementation fidelity of the Systems for Person-Centered Elder Care (SPEC): a process evaluation study

Theoretical elements (area to measure) Research questions Data source and data collection methods
Evaluation of adherence
 Content - Was each of the intervention components implemented as planned? x x x   
 Frequency/duration (dosage, dose delivery) - Were the intervention components implemented as often and for as long as planned? x x x   
 Coverage (reach) - What proportion of the target group participated in the interventions? x x x   
Potential moderating factors
 Participant responsiveness
  Clusters - How was the intervention adopted by cluster?
- Why did clusters agree to participate or not?
  Individuals - How were the participants engaged with the interventions?
- How satisfied were the participants with the interventions?
- What were the barriers and facilitators to implement the interventions?
x   x x x
  Intervention complexity - How complex was the intervention?
- How specific was the intervention description?
x   x x x
  Strategies to facilitate implementation - What strategies were used to support implementation?
- How were these strategies perceived by staff involved in the interventions?
x    x x
  Quality of delivery - How was the quality of delivering the intervention components? x   x x x
  Recruitment of clusters - How were clusters sampled and recruited? x     
  Recruitment and reach-in of individuals - What recruitment procedures were used to attract individuals to intervention?
- What constituted barriers to maintaining involvement of individuals?
x x x x x
  Context - What factors at political, economic, organizational, and work focus group levels affected the implementation? x   x x x
  1. LB, SPEC consultant’s logbooks; ICT, SPEC ICT system; SQ, standardized questionnaire items from on-site SPEC coordinators; SSQ, semi-structured questionnaire from on-site SPEC coordinators; FGI, focus group interviews with interdisciplinary team of each participating NH