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Table 4 Association between desired change in behaviour (implementation (n=81) and de-implementation (n=97)) and BCT present

From: Changing behaviour, ‘more or less’: do implementation and de-implementation interventions include different behaviour change techniques?

BCT Desired change in behaviour BCT identified Value Significance value +
Present Absent
Behaviour substitution Implementation 3 78 12.607 <.0005*b
De-implementation 23 74
Feedback on behaviour Implementation 59 22 15.693 <.0001*a
De-implementation 42 55
Monitoring of behaviour by others without feedback Implementation 1 80 16.187 <.0001*b
De-implementation 22 75
Restructuring social environment Implementation 0 81 -- <.0005*c
De-implementation 13 84
Goal setting (behaviour) Implementation 16 65 9.301 .002b
De-implementation 4 93
Problem solving Implementation 5 75 0.077 .781b
De-implementation 4 93
Goal setting (outcome) Implementation 5 76 -- .018c
De-implementation 0 97
Action planning Implementation 2 79 -- .206c
De-implementation 0 97
Review of behaviour goal(s) Implementation 8 73 3.717 .054b
De-implementation 2 95
Discrepancy between current behaviour and goal Implementation 6 75 3.213 .073b
De-implementation 1 96
Behavioural contract Implementation 3 78 -- .092c
De-implementation 0 97
Commitment Implementation 1 80 -- .455c
De-implementation 0 97
Self-monitoring of behaviour Implementation 3 78 .477 .490b
De-implementation 1 96
Monitoring of behaviour by others without feedback Implementation 0 81 -- .501c
De-implementation 2 95
Feedback on outcome of behaviour Implementation 11 70 .204 .651a
De-implementation 11 86
Social support (unspecified) Implementation 12 12 .827 .363a
De-implementation 10 87
Social support (practical) Implementation 6 75 .105 .746a
De-implementation 6 91
Instruction on how to perform the behaviour Implementation 53 28 .666 .415a
De-implementation 69 28
Information about health consequences Implementation 12 69 .827 .363a
De-implementation 10 87
Information about social and environmental consequences Implementation 3 78 3.247 .072b
De-implementation 12 85
Demonstration of the behaviour Implementation 0 81 -- 1.00c
De-implementation 1 96
Social comparison Implementation 27 54 5.102 .024a
De-implementation 18 79
Prompts and cues Implementation 17 64 8.595 .003a
De-implementation 6 91
Behavioural practice/rehearsal Implementation 1 80 -- .455c
De-implementation 0 97
Credible source Implementation 20 61 2.379 .123a
De-implementation 15 82
Pros and cons Implementation 7 74 .873 .350b
De-implementation 4 93
Comparative imagining of future outcomes Implementation 1 80 -- .455c
De-implementation 0 97
Material incentive (behaviour) Implementation 3 78 .477 .490b
De-implementation 1 96
Material reward (behaviour) Implementation 4 77 -- .041c
De-implementation 0 97
Non-specific incentive Implementation 2 79 -- .206c
De-implementation 0 97
Restructuring physical environment Implementation 5 81 4.519 .034a
De-implementation 16 76
Adding objects to the environment Implementation 6 75 1.664 .197a
De-implementation 13 84
  1. +Significance value adjusted for 32 comparisons (Bonferroni; p< .0015)
  2. aPearson’s chi-square
  3. bYates’ continuity correction for cells less than 5
  4. cFisher’s exact test for cells with 0 count