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Table 3 BCTs Identified in the study descriptions and definitions

From: Changing behaviour, ‘more or less’: do implementation and de-implementation interventions include different behaviour change techniques?

BCTs identified BCT definitions from Michie et al. [17]
Goal setting (behaviour) Set or agree on a goal defined in terms of the behaviour to be achieved
Feedback on behaviour Monitor and provide informative or evaluative feedback on performance of the behaviour (e.g. form, frequency, duration, intensity)
Monitoring of behaviour by others without feedback Observe or record behaviour with the person’s knowledge as part of the behaviour change strategy
Behaviour substitution Prompt substitution of the unwanted behaviour with a wanted or neutral behaviour
Restructuring social environment Change, or advise to change the social environment in order to facilitate performance of the wanted behaviour or create barriers to the unwanted behaviour (other than prompts/cues, rewards and punishments)
Problem solving Analyse, or prompt the person to analyse, factors influencing the behaviour and generate or select strategies that include overcoming barriers and/or increasing facilitators
Goal setting (outcome) Set or agree on a goal defined in terms of a positive outcome of wanted behaviour
Action planning Prompt detailed planning of performance of the behaviour (must include at least one of context, frequency, duration and intensity) context may be environmental (physical or social) or internal (physical, emotional or cognitive)
Review of behaviour goal(s) Review behaviour goal(s) jointly with the person and consider modifying goals or behaviour change strategy in light of achievement. This may lead to resetting the same goal, a small change in that goal or setting a new goal instead of (or in addition to) the first, or no change
Discrepancy between current behaviour and goal Draw attention to discrepancies between a person’s current behaviour (in terms for form, frequency duration, or intensity of that behaviour) and the person’s previously set of outcome goals, behavioural goals or action plans (goes beyond self-monitoring of behaviour)
Behavioural contract Create a written specification of the behaviour to be performed, agreed on by the person and witnessed by another
Commitment Ask the person to affirm or reaffirm statements indicating commitment to change the behaviour
Self-monitoring of behaviour Establish a method for the person to monitor and record their behaviour(s) as part of the behaviour change strategy
Monitoring of behaviour by others without feedback Observe or record outcomes of behaviour with the person’s knowledge as part of the behaviour change strategy
Feedback on outcome of behaviour Monitor and provide feedback on the outcome of performance of the behaviour
Social support (unspecified) Advise on, arrange or provide social support (e.g. from friends, relatives, colleagues, ‘buddies’ or staff) or non- contingent praise or reward for performance of the behaviour. It includes encouragement and counselling, but only when it is directed at the behaviour
Social support (practical) Advise on, arrange or provide practical help (e.g. from friends, relatives, colleagues, ‘buddies’ or staff) or non-contingent praise or reward for performance of the behaviour. It includes encouragement and counselling, but only when it is directed at the behaviour
Instruction on how to perform the behaviour Advise or agree on how to perform the behaviour (includes ‘Skills training’)
Information about health consequences Provide information (e.g. written, verbal, visual) about health consequences of performing the behaviour
Information about social and environmental consequences Provide information (e.g. written, verbal, visual) about social and environmental consequences of performing the behaviour. Note: consequences can be for any target, not just the recipient(s) of the intervention
Demonstration of the behaviour Provide an observable sample of the performance of the behaviour, directly in person or indirectly, e.g. via film, pictures, for the person to aspire to or imitate.
Social comparison Draw attention to others’ performance to allow comparison with the person’s own performance Note: being in a group setting does not necessarily mean that social comparison is actually taking place
Prompts and cues Introduce or define environmental or social stimulus with the purpose of prompting or cueing the behaviour. The prompt or cue would normally occur at the time or place of performance
Behavioural practice/rehearsal Prompt practice or rehearsal of the performance of the behaviour one or more times in a context or at the time when the performance may not be necessary, in order to increase habit or skill
Credible source Present verbal or visual communication from a credible source in favour of or against the behaviour Note: code this BCT if source generally agreed on as credible e.g. health professionals, celebrities or words used to indicate expertise or leader in field
Pros and cons Advise the person to identify and compare reasons for wanting (pros) and not wanting to (cons) change the behaviour (includes decisional balance)
Comparative imagining of future outcomes Prompt or advise the imagining and comparing of future outcomes of changed versus unchanged behaviour
Material incentive (behaviour) Inform that money, vouchers or other valued objects will be delivered if and only if the has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes positive reinforcement)
Material reward (behaviour) Arrange the delivery of money, vouchers or other valued objects if and only if the has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour
Non-specific incentive Arrange the delivery or a reward if and only if there has been effort and /or progress in performing the behaviour.
Restructuring physical environment Change, or advise to change the physical environment in order to facilitate performance of the wanted behaviour or create barriers to the unwanted behaviour (other than prompts/cues, rewards and punishments)
Adding objects to the environment Add object to the environment in order to facilitate the performance or the behaviour. Note: Provision of information (e.g. written, verbal, visual) in a booklet or leaflet is insufficient.