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Table 5 RCTs evaluating the effects of CQI compared to non-CQI interventions on other outcome measures

From: The effectiveness of continuous quality improvement for developing professional practice and improving health care outcomes: a systematic review

Subgroup Number of studies Number (%) of RCTs reporting a statistically significant difference on different proportions of other outcomes
All outcomes Over half of outcomes Half of outcomes Under half of outcomes No outcomes One or more outcomes
All studies 3 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 3 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Clinical background
Primary Care 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Secondary Care 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tertiary Care 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Social Care 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Primary quality improvement model
Plan-Do-Study-Act 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Model for Improvement 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Root cause analysis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Training type
Web-based 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
In person 3 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 3 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
In person plus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Not described 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Training duration
1–3 hours 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4–8 hours 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9–16 hours 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
>16 hours 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Not described 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Meetings
Participant leader, implementation discussed 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Participant leader, unclear implementation discussed 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Not described 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Meeting schedule
Once a week or more 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fortnightly 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Monthly 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Quarterly or less frequent 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Not described 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Range of year of publication
2010–2020 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
2000–2009 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
1990–1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0