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Table 4 RCTs evaluating the effects of CQI compared to non-CQI Interventions on patient outcome measures

From: The effectiveness of continuous quality improvement for developing professional practice and improving health care outcomes: a systematic review

Subgroup Number of studies Number (%) of RCTs reporting a statistically significant difference on different proportions of patient outcomes
All outcomes Over half of outcomes Half of outcomes Under half of outcomes No outcomes One or more outcomes
All studies 17 0 (0%) 2 (11.8%) 1 (5.9%) 3 (17.6%) 11 (64.7%) 6 (35.3%)
Clinical background
Primary Care 6 0 (0%) 1 (16.7%) 1 (16.7%) 0 (0%) 4 (66.7%) 2 (33.3%)
Secondary Care 7 0 (0%) 1 (14.3%) 0 (0%) 2 (28.6%) 4 (57.1%) 3 (42.9%)
Tertiary Care 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Social Care 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%)
Other 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Primary quality improvement model
Plan-Do-Study-Act 9 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (11.1%) 2 (22.2%) 6 (66.7%) 3 (33.3%)
Model for Improvement 5 0 (0%) 2 (40.0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 3 (60.0%) 2 (40.0%)
Root cause analysis 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%)
Other 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Training type
Web-based 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%)
In person 7 0 (0%) 2 (28.6%) 1 (14.3%) 1 (14.3%) 3 (42.9%) 4 (57.1%)
In person plus 5 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (20.0%) 4 (80.0%) 1 (20.0%)
Not described 4 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 4 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Training duration
1–3 hours 3 0 (0%) 1 (33.3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (66.7%) 1 (33.3%)
4–8 hours 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9–16 hours 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%)
>16 hours 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100%) 0 (0%)
Not described 12 0 (0%) 1 (8.3%) 1 (8.3%) 2 (16.7%) 8 (66.7%) 4 (33.3%)
Meetings        
Participant leader, implementation discussed 10 0 (0%) 1 (10.0%) 0 (0%) 1 (10.0%) 8 (80.0%) 2 (20.0%)
Participant leader, unclear implementation discussed 4 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (25.0%) 3 (75.0%) 1 (25.0%)
Not described 3 1 (33.3%) 1 (33.3%) 0 (0%) 1 (33.3%) 0 (0%) 3 (100.0%)
Meeting schedule
Once a week or more 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fortnightly 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Monthly 7 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (28.6%) 5 (71.4%) 2 (28.6%)
Quarterly or less frequent 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Not described 7 0 (0%) 2 (28.6%) 1 (14.3%) 1 (14.3%) 3 (42.9%) 4 (57.1%)
Range of year of publication
2010–2020 11 0 (0%) 1 (9.1%) 0 (0%) 2 (18.2%) 8 (72.7%) 3 (27.3%)
2000–2009 5 0 (0%) 1 (20.0%) 1 (20.0%) 1 (20.0%) 2 (40.0%) 3 (60.0%)
1990–1999 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)