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Table 3 RCTs evaluating the effects of CQI compared to non-CQI interventions on clinical process outcomes

From: The effectiveness of continuous quality improvement for developing professional practice and improving health care outcomes: a systematic review

Sub-group Number of studies Number (%) of RCTs reporting a statistically significant difference on different proportions of clinical process outcomes
All outcomes Over half of outcomes Half of outcomes Under half of outcomes No outcomes One or more outcomes
All studies 24 4 (16.7%) 2 (8.3%) 1 (4.2%) 4 (16.7%) 13 (54.2%) 11 (45.8%)
Clinical background
Primary Care 13 4 (30.8%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (15.4%) 7 (53.8%) 6 (46.2%)
Secondary Care 9 0 (0%) 1 (11.1%) 1 (11.1%) 2 (22.2%) 5 (55.6%) 4 (44.4%)
Tertiary Care 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Social Care 1 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%)
Other 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Primary quality improvement model
Plan-Do-Study-Act 11 2 (18.2%) 1 (9.1%) 1 (9.1%) 2 (18.2%) 5 (45.5%) 6 (54.5%)
Model for Improvement 7 0 (0%) 1 (14.3%) 0 (0%) 1 (14.3%) 5 (71.4%) 2 (28.6%)
Root cause analysis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 6 2 (33.3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (16.7%) 3 (50.0%) 3 (50.0%)
Training type
Web-based 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
In person 14 4 (28.6%) 1 (7.1%) 1 (7.1%) 0 (0%) 8 (57.1%) 6 (42.9%)
In person plus 7 0 (0%) 1 (14.3%) 0 (0%) 4 (57.1%) 2 (28.6%) 5 (71.4%)
Not described 3 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 3 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Training duration
1-3 hours 4 2 (50.0%) 1 (25.0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (25.0%) 3 (75.0%)
4-8 hours 2 1 (50.0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%)
9-16 hours 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%)
>16 hours 4 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (50.0%) 2 (50.0%) 2 (50.0%)
Not described 12 1 (8.3%) 1 (8.3%) 1 (8.3%) 1 (8.3%) 8 (66.7%) 4 (33.3%)
Meetings
Participant leader, implementation discussed 15 3 (20.0%) 2 (13.3%) 1 (6.7%) 2 (13.3%) 7 (46.7%) 8 (53.3%)
Participant leader, unclear implementation discussed 3 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (33.3%) 2 (66.7%) 1 (33.3%)
Not described 6 1 (16.7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (16.7%) 4 (66.7%) 2 (33.3%)
Meeting schedule
Once a week or more 3 2 (66.7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (33.3%) 0 (0%) 3 (100.0%)
Fortnightly 1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0%)
Monthly 7 1 (14.3%) 0 (0%) 1 (14.3%) 1 (14.3%) 4 (57.1%) 3 (42.9%)
Quarterly or less frequent 2 0 (0%) 1 (50.0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%)
Not described 11 1 (9.1%) 1 (9.1%) 0 (0%) 2 (18.2%) 7 (63.6%) 4 (36.4%)
Range of year of publication
2010–2020 16 3 (18.8%) 1 (6.3%) 1 (6.3%) 2 (12.5%) 9 (56.3%) 7 (43.7%)
2000–2009 6 1 (16.7%) 1 (16.7%) 0 (0%) 1 (16.7%) 3 (50.0%) 3 (50.0%)
1990–1999 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%)