|Sufficient evidence||Some evidence|
|None identified||None identified|
| • People self-managing antithrombotics (self-testing and self-adjusting therapy based on a predetermined dose schedule) decreases thromboembolic events and mortality; and there is some evidence that self-management improves clinical outcomes, but with mixed results .|
• Self-monitoring (self-testing and calling clinic for the appropriate dose adjustment) of antithrombotic is effective in reducing major hemorrhages .
• In hypertension, there is also sufficient evidence that home blood pressure monitoring is generally effective to improve clinical markers for hypertension, medicines overuse, and therapeutic inertia .
|• A home safety toolkit for caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s improve home safety, risky behavior, caregiver self-efficacy, and caregiver strain .|
• Strategies that focus on the acquisition of skills and competencies may improve adherence to medicines and clinical outcomes, but results are mixed .
• Patient-controlled analgesia may increase analgesic consumption and decrease pain scores, although with mixed results .
• Structured patient-controlled analgesia education may improve knowledge, but there is insufficient evidence that it improves postoperative pain control .
• Packaged resources or guidelines providing information and/or activation (e.g. information or tools to prompt action for actively managing a condition) are potential sources of self-management support for patients .
• Intensive mixed strategy health literacy interventions that promote adherence and facilitate self-management may reduce use of health care services (emergency room visits and hospitalizations) .
• Mixed strategy health literacy interventions including individual or group counseling may improve self-management behaviors (e.g. physical activity, foot care, medication adherence, and glucose self-monitoring) .