|Sufficient evidence||Some evidence|
|None identified||• Use of email for non-urgent messages between patients and professionals may improve participant satisfaction .|
| • Information Technology applications implemented to support Patient-Centered Care improve healthcare process outcomes (i.e., adherence to standards of care, use of resources, patient engagement, etc.), as well as shared decision-making or communication, telehealth communication, and satisfaction among patients and providers .|
• Use of patient decision aids (written or electronic) improves patient knowledge, accuracy of risk perception, clarity about their personal values and participation in decision-making, and decrease decision conflict .
|• Coaching plus patient decision aids (versus usual care) may improve knowledge and participation in decision-making. Coaching (versus patient decision aids) may improve values-choice agreement and satisfaction. Coaching plus patient decision aids (versus patient decision aids) showed no differences in knowledge, match between values and choice, participation in decision-making, satisfaction, or decision conflict .|
• Patient information leaflets before consultation regarding screening or surgery or for medication information may improve patient satisfaction .
• One to one risk communication (not necessarily face to face) may be most productive if it includes individual risk estimates in the discussion between the professional and patient. Furthermore, patient decisions about treatments are more likely to change than attendance for screening or modification of risky behavior .
• Information Technology applications implemented to support patient-centered care may improve clinical outcomes. In particular, telehealth applications and care management tools may be most effective in improving clinical outcomes. Also tailored health Information Technology interventions aimed at increasing patient engagement during the clinical encounter may improve patient and provider satisfaction .
• Consumer health informatics applications (e.g. health risk assessments, decision aids, phones, laptops, CD-ROMs, personal digital assistants/smartphones, short message service (SMS), chat groups or discussion) may effectively engage consumers, enhance traditional clinical interventions, and improve both intermediate and clinical health outcomes .
• Delayed prescribing as a strategy to reduce widespread antibiotic resistance may be effective in decreasing antibiotic use, but has mixed effects on clinical outcomes, adverse events and satisfaction .
• Education and enhanced follow-up; facilitators working with physicians to encourage preventive services; and pharmaceutical care services – may improve adherence and knowledge .