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Table 1 Providing information or education—strategies with sufficient or some evidence to support their implementation

From: Knowledge translation strategies for dissemination with a focus on healthcare recipients: an overview of systematic reviews

Sufficient evidenceSome evidence
Single strategies
 • In relation to alternative formats for presenting risks (in hypothetical scenarios) focused on either diagnostic or screening tests: consumers (and providers) understand formats with natural frequencies better than percentages [21].
 • In relation to alternative formats for presenting risk reductions: there is no difference in understanding of relative risk reduction (RRR) compared to absolute risk reduction (ARR). However, RRR is perceived to be larger and more persuasive. RRR is better understood than number needed to treat (NNT) and RRR is perceived to be larger and more persuasive than NNT. ARR is better understood than NNT, with little or no difference in persuasiveness [21].
 • When communicating the probability of adverse effects using leaflets on drugs for a particular condition, satisfaction is significantly higher for numbers vs. words (hypothetical scenario) [26].
• Information or education when delivered alone may improve knowledge but there is insufficient evidence for a reduction in adverse effects from drugs [9].
• Patient education and/or information as a single component or as part of a more complex intervention may be effective in improving immunization rates [9].
• Regular viewing of fictional medical television programs habits may improve perceptions of healthcare and healthcare workers [33].
• When communicating the probability of adverse effects using leaflets on drugs for a particular condition numbers vs words (hypothetical scenario) may improve the likelihood of medicines use for very common side effects [26].
Combined strategies
 None identified• Information or education in combination with other interventions, such as self-management skills training, counseling, or as part of pharmacist delivered packages of care may improve adherence to medications, knowledge and clinical outcomes [9].
• Quality improvement strategies with an educational component targeting patients may decrease the proportion of patients receiving antibiotics, but with mixed results [9].
• Interventions before consultations designed to help patients with their information needs through video, audiotape and computer programs may improve patient satisfaction but there is insufficient evidence regarding their effect on anxiety [35].
• Multimedia or print information as modes of information dissemination and patient education may improve patient preference, knowledge, anxiety, and behavior. (Multimedia could include videotape or DVD, computer, film, slides, html, audiotape only or multiple videos). There was no clear difference in effect between print and multimedia [52].
  1. ARR absolute risk reduction, NNT number needed to treat, RRR relative risk reduction