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Table 4 Themes coded to each of the TDF domains within the motivation component of the COM-B system

From: Factors influencing the implementation of screening and brief interventions for alcohol use in primary care practices: a systematic review using the COM-B system and Theoretical Domains Framework

TDF Theme Countries References on barriers References on facilitators
Beliefs about capabilities Beliefs about the ability to deliver SBI and in helping patients to cut down UK(11); Australia(5); Multicountry(5); Finland(3); Sweden(3); USA(3); Canada(2); Denmark(1); New Zealand(2); Netherlands(1); South Africa(1); Spain(1); Sri Lanka(1) [20, 36, 37, 40, 41, 44,45,46,47,48, 50, 52, 53, 55, 59,60,61,62, 64, 65, 67, 72, 75, 78, 81, 84, 85, 97, 101, 104,105,106,107,108,109, 111, 116] [48, 49, 71, 78, 100]
Time Sweden(7); Australia(5); UK(5); USA(4); Finland(2); Norway(2); Canada(1); Denmark(1); Multicountry(1); Netherlands(1); New Zealand(1); Portugal(1); Slovenia(1); Sri Lanka(1) [16, 20, 37, 41, 48, 49, 52, 54, 58, 62, 63, 65, 67, 70, 72,73,74, 87, 91, 92, 95, 97, 99, 105,106,107, 109, 111] [39, 43, 70, 71, 80, 92, 93, 97]
Difficult task UK(8); Australia(3); Canada(3); Finland(3); Norway(3); Multicountry(2); Sweden(2); Brazil(1); Denmark(1); Netherlands(1); New Zealand(1); Portugal(1); South Africa(1); Sri Lanka(1) [16, 23, 37, 41, 42, 49, 54, 59,60,61,62, 67, 68, 73, 78, 83, 86, 90, 92, 97, 99, 102, 105, 107, 109, 113] [39, 41, 58, 62, 71, 86, 87, 97, 99, 105, 109]
Therapeutic commitment Multicountry(4); Netherlands(1) [45,46,47, 50, 81]  
Self-esteem when working with at-risk drinkers UK(3); Portugal(1); Sweden(1) [16, 20, 23, 78] [71]
Disease model training Finland(1) [41]  
Patients’ misbeliefs about alcohol UK(1) [105]  
Demographical characteristics of the patient New Zealand(1) [97]  
Beliefs about consequences Effectiveness of SBI UK(6); Finland(3); Sweden(3); Australia(2); Multicountry(2); Norway(2); Canada(1); Denmark(1); Italy(1); Netherlands(1); New Zealand(1); South Africa(1); Spain(1) [20, 23, 36, 38, 42, 45, 49, 55, 57, 64, 70, 73, 78, 83, 84, 86, 91, 106, 107, 110] [23, 36, 39, 47, 71, 78, 84, 87, 92, 109]
Patients’ feelings when asked about their drinking Norway(3); UK(3); Finland(2); Multicountry(2); USA(2); Australia(1); Brazil(1); France(1); New Zealand(1); Slovenia(1); Sweden(1) [20, 23, 41, 42, 47, 56, 71, 78, 84, 87, 92, 93, 97, 99, 103, 113, 115] [58, 93]
Therapeutic relation with the patient Sweden(3); UK(2); Canada(1); Denmark(1); Finland(1); France(1); New Zealand(1); Norway(1); Slovenia(1); USA(1) [37, 48, 49, 56, 72, 74, 91, 97, 99, 103, 109, 115] [49, 74, 84, 99]
Reliability of the answers of the patients when asked about alcohol Finland(2); Denmark(1); Multicountry (1); New Zealand(1); Norway(1); Sri Lanka(1); Sweden(1); UK(1) [37, 42, 48, 49, 67, 89, 92, 97, 99]  
Patients’ reactions when asked about alcohol Sweden(3); UK(3); Australia(1); Denmark(1); Finland(1); Multicountry(1) [70, 73, 84, 89, 92, 95, 102] [41, 48, 49]
Patients’ receptiveness to alcohol interventions Finland(2); USA(2); Australia(1); New Zealand(1); Norway(1); Slovenia(1); Sweden(1); UK(1) [36, 42, 63, 65, 73, 103, 105] [58, 87, 97]
Frustrating task UK(3); Canada(1); Portugal(1); Sweden(1) [16, 57, 62, 77, 109] [48]
Alcohol being perceived as having health benefits Finland(1); Sweden(1); UK(1) [20, 42, 78]  
Incentives UK(3); Australia(1); Finland(1); Multicountry(1); Netherlands(1); Slovenia(1); Sweden(1) [95, 107] [20, 23, 36, 39, 78, 80, 92]
Time Sweden(2); Australia(1); Finland(1); Multicountry(1); Netherlands(1); New Zealand(1); Slovenia(1); UK(1); USA(1) [37, 48] [39, 43, 70, 71, 80, 92, 93, 97]
Delivering SBI can make other patients suffer Sweden(1); UK(1) [73, 95]  
Bad publicity UK(1) [95]  
Demographical characteristics of the patient UK(1) [89]  
SBI delivery impedes caring for other patients Finland(1) [38]  
Uncomfortable task Australia(1); Netherlands(1) [107] [39]
Patients with alcohol problems do not attend their appointments New Zealand(1) [97]  
Social/professional role and identity Role legitimacy UK(7); Finland(5); Sweden(3); Canada(2); New Zealand(2); Australia(1); Denmark(1); Norway(1); Portugal(1); Slovenia(1); South Africa(1); Spain(1) [16, 23, 36,37,38, 44, 49, 52, 55, 57, 62, 64, 72,73,74,75, 78, 83, 89, 97, 99, 102, 105, 108, 109]  
Professional responsibility UK(7); Sweden(3); Finland(2); New Zealand(2); Australia(1); Multicountry(1); South Africa(1); Sri Lanka(1); USA(1) [23, 37, 38, 47, 55, 59,60,61,62, 65, 67, 72,73,74, 78, 83, 97, 105, 107]  
Disease model training UK(4); Sweden(3); Finland(2); Australia(1); Multicountry(1); Norway(1); South Africa(1); Sri Lanka(1) [23, 41, 42, 47, 58, 61, 67, 72,73,74, 78, 83, 88, 99]  
Doctors and nurses own drinking habits UK(4); Canada(1); Multicountry(1); Norway(1); Slovenia(1); Sweden(1) [23, 47, 74, 77, 78, 87, 89, 98, 103]  
Doctors’ and nurses’ permissiveness towards alcohol UK(2); Finland(1); Multicountry(1); Sweden(1); USA(1) [20, 23, 38, 47, 89, 115]  
Role security Multicountry(4); Netherlands(1) [45,46,47, 50, 81]  
Doctors’ and nurses’ attitudes towards discussing alcohol with patients Finland(2); Denmark(1) [36, 37, 49]  
Patients’ feelings when asked about their drinking Finland(2); Australia(1); USA(1) [41, 42, 93]  
Demographical characteristics of the PHC professionals Australia(1); Canada(1) [107, 109]  
Demographical characteristics of the patient UK(1) [89]  
Therapeutic relation with the patient Denmark(1); Finland(1); Norway(1); Sweden(1); UK(1) [38] [49, 74, 84, 99]
Feedback on the results of delivering SBI UK(2); Finland(1) [42] [71, 109]
Emotion Uncomfortable task UK(5); Finland(2); USA(2); Canada(1); France(1); Multicountry(1); Netherlands(1); New Zealand(1); Norway(1); South Africa(1); Sweden(1) [23, 37, 41, 47, 54, 56, 77, 78, 83, 89, 91, 97, 99, 109, 115, 116] [39]
Satisfaction when working with at-risk drinkers UK(8); Sweden(2); Canada(1); Portugal(1); Spain(1); Sri Lanka(1) [16, 20, 23, 44, 57, 59,60,61,62, 67, 73, 78, 94, 108]  
Patients’ feelings when asked about their drinking Norway(3); USA(2); Australia(1); New Zealand(1); UK(1); [71, 86, 87, 97, 99, 115] [58, 93]
Frustrating task UK(3); Canada(1); Portugal(1); Sweden(1) [16, 57, 62, 77, 109] [48]
Therapeutic commitment Multicountry(4); Netherlands(1) [45,46,47, 50, 81]  
Self-esteem when working with at-risk drinkers UK(2); Canada(1) [62, 108] [71]
Doctors and nurses own drinking habits UK(2) [77, 89]  
Motivation to work with at-risk drinkers UK(3); Multicountry(1); Netherlands(1); Norway(1); Sri Lanka(1); Sweden(1) [105] [39, 47, 48, 59, 60, 67, 99]
Intentions Motivation to work with at-risk drinkers UK(9); Sweden(3); Australia(2); Spain(2); Canada(1); Multicountry(1); Netherlands(1); Portugal(1); Sri Lanka(1); USA(1) [16, 20, 23, 44, 57, 62, 64,65,66, 78, 94, 95, 105, 107, 108] [39, 47, 48, 59, 60, 67, 99]
Therapeutic commitment Multicountry(4); Netherlands(1) [45,46,47, 50, 81]  
Reinforcement Incentives for delivering SBI UK(3); Australia(2); Multicountry(2); Slovenia(2); Finland(1); Netherlands(1); Norway(1); Portugal(1); South Africa(1); Sweden(1) [16, 23, 47, 78, 83, 92, 95, 99, 103, 106, 107] [20, 23, 36, 39, 78, 80, 92]
Goals Importance/priority given to alcohol issues UK(4); Sweden(3); Multicountry(2); Norway(2); Finland(1); USA(1) [20, 23, 41, 47, 48, 65, 71, 74, 78, 88, 92, 105] [99]
Time UK(4); Australia(2); Multicountry(2); Netherlands(1); New Zealand(1); Slovenia(1); South Africa(1); Sweden(1); USA(1) [23, 47, 78, 83, 92, 105, 106] [39, 43, 70, 71, 80, 92, 93, 97]
Optimism Beliefs about the ability to deliver SBI and in helping patients to cut down UK(3); Denmark(1), Multicountry(1); New Zealand(1); Norway(1); Sweden(1) [55, 62, 92] [48, 49, 71, 78, 100]