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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Factors influencing the implementation of screening and brief interventions for alcohol use in primary care practices: a systematic review using the COM-B system and Theoretical Domains Framework

First author Year Country Language Study design Study sample (n) Methodological quality
GP Nurse
Aalto [36] 2001 Finland English Cross-sectional 84 167 Good
Aalto [38] 2003 Finland English Cross-sectional 64   Good
Aalto [37] 2003a Finland English Focus group 18 19 Good
Abidi [39] 2016 Netherlands English Delphi 37   Good
Abouyanni [40] 2000 Australia English Cross-sectional 416   Poor
Aira [41] 2003 Finland English Semi-structured interviews 35   Good
Aira [42] 2004 Finland English Semi-structured interviews 35   Good
Ampt [43] 2009 Australia English Semi-structured interviews 15 1 Good
Anderson [44] 1985 UK English Cross-sectional 312   Good
Anderson [46] 2003 Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, UK English Cross-sectional 1300   Good
Anderson [45] 2004 Australia, Belgium, Spain, UK English RCT 277   Good
Anderson [47] 2014 Czech Republic, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, UK English Cross-sectional 2345   Fair
Arborelius [48] 1995 Sweden English Structured interviews 13   Fair
Beich [49] 2002 Denmark English Focus groups
Individual interviews
24   Fair
Bendtsen [50] 2015 Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, UK English Cohort 409 282 Fair
Berner [51] 2007 Germany English Cross-sectional 58   Fair
Brennan [52] 2013 Australia English Cross-sectional 15   Poor
Brotons [53] 2005 Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden English Cross-sectional 2082   Poor
Carlfjord [54] 2012 Sweden English Focus groups 9 12 Good
Casswell [55] 1982 New Zealand English Cross-sectional 431   Fair
Charrel [56] 2010 France English Cross-sectional 300   Fair
Clement [57] 1986 UK English Cross-sectional 71   Good
Clifford [58] 2011 Australia English Pre-post training surveys
Focus groups
3 3 Good
Deehan [60] 1997 UK English Cross-sectional 81   Fair
Deehan [61] 1998 UK English Cross-sectional 2377   Poor
Deehan [59] 1999 UK English Cross-sectional 264 196 Fair
Farmer [62] 2001 UK English Semi-structured interviews
Cross-sectional
50   Poor
Ferguson [63] 2003 USA English Cross-sectional 40   Poor
Fernández [64] 1999 Spain Spanish Cross-sectional 227   Fair
Friedmann [65] 2000 USA English Cross-sectional 243   Fair
Fucito [66] 2003 Australia English Cross-sectional 110   Good
Geirsson [20] 2005 Sweden English Cross-sectional 68 193 Good
Gurugama [67] 2003 Sri Lanka English Cross-sectional 105   Good
Haley [68] 2000 Canada English Cross-sectional 805   Fair
Harris [69] 2005 Australia English Pre-post questionnaire
with no control group
21   Poor
Holmqvist [70] 2008 Sweden English Cross-sectional 1790 2549 Good
Hutchings [71] 2006 UK English Focus groups 18 15 Good
Johansson [73] 2002 Sweden English Cross-sectional 65 141 Good
Johansson [72] 2005 Sweden English Focus groups   26 Poor
Johansson [74] 2005a Sweden English Focus groups 13   Good
Kaariainen [75] 2001 Finland English Cross-sectional GP + nurse = 69 Fair
Kaner [78] 1999 UK English Cross-sectional 279   Good
Kaner [79] 2001 Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Hungary, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Thailand, UK English Cross-sectional 2139   Good
Kaner [76] 2003 UK English Cluster RCT   212 general practices Fair
Kaner [77] 2006 UK English Interviews 29   Good
Kersnik [80] 2009 Slovenia English Focus groups 32   Good
Keurhorst [81] 2014 Netherlands English Cluster RCT 112   Fair
Kolsek [82] 2008 Belgium, Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Russia, Slovenia English Delphi
Focus groups
nr nr Fair
Koopman [83] 2008 South Africa English Cross-sectional 50   Fair
Lacey [84] 2009 UK English Focus groups
Semi-structured interviews
Cross-sectional
  nr Fair
Lambe [85] 2008 UK English Cross-sectional
Focus groups
  53 Good
Lid [86] 2012 Norway English Focus groups 13   Fair
Lid [87] 2015 Norway English Focus groups 19   Good
Linke [88] 2005 UK English Focus groups 10   Fair
Lock [89] 2002 UK English Semi-structured interviews   24 Good
Maheux [90] 1999 Canada English Cross-sectional 805   Fair
May [91] 2006 UK English Semi-structured interviews 43 1 Good
McAvoy [92] 2001 Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Hungary, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Russia English Semi-structured interviews 126   Fair
Miller [93] 2006 USA English Focus groups nr nr Good
Miner [94] 1990 Spain Spanish Cross-sectional 83   Fair
Mistral [95] 2001 UK English Cross-sectional
Semi-structured interviews
103   Poor
Moretti-Pires [96] 2011 Brazil Portuguese Focus groups
Semi-structured interviews
  12 Fair
Mules [97] 2012 New Zealand English Semi-structured interviews 19   Fair
Nevin [98] 2002 Canada English Cross-sectional 75   Fair
Nygaard [100] 2010 Norway English Cross-sectional 901   Good
Nygaard [99] 2011 Norway English Focus groups 40   Good
Owens [101] 2000 UK English Cross-sectional   101 Fair
Payne [102] 2005 Australia English Cross-sectional 170   Fair
Poplas Susic [103] 2010 Slovenia English Focus groups 32   Good
Proude [104] 2006 Australia English Pre-post questionnaire with no control group 300   Poor
Rapley [105] 2006 UK English Semi-structured interviews 43   Good
Ribeiro [16] 2011 Portugal Portuguese Cross-sectional 188   Fair
Richmond [106] 1998 Australia English Post-intervention questionnaire with no control group 272   Poor
Roche [107] 1991 Australia English Focus groups 44   Fair
Rush [108] 1994 Canada English Cross-sectional 1235   Good
Rush [109] 1995 Canada English Focus groups
Semi-structured interviews
12   Good
Segnan [110] 1992 Italy English Cross-sectional 209   Fair
Sharp [111] 2011 USA English Cross-sectional 101   Good
Slaunwhite [112] 2015 Canada English Cross-sectional 67   Poor
Souza [113] 2012 Brazil Portuguese Semi-structured interviews   8 Fair
Van Zyl [114] 2013 South Africa English Cross-sectional 77   Fair
Vandermause [115] 2007 USA English In-depth interviews   23 Fair
Vinson [116] 2004 USA English Cluster RCT 44   Fair
Wilson [23] 2011 UK English Cross-sectional 282   Good
  1. nr Not reported