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Table 1 Definitions of social norms (SN) BCTs and other (non-SN) BCTs that feature prominently in SOCIAL review

From: How effective are social norms interventions in changing the clinical behaviours of healthcare workers? A systematic review and meta-analysis

SN/non-SN BCT Name and definition from BCT taxonomy (reproduced from the BCT taxonomy [16]) SOCIAL review name and definition (reproduced from the SOCIAL protocol [17])
Social norm BCT 6.2. Social comparison
Draw attention to others' performance to allow comparison with the person's own performance. Note: being in a group setting does not necessarily mean that social comparison is actually taking place.
Show the doctor the proportion of patients who were prescribed antibiotics for a common cold by other doctors and compare with their own data.
Coded as per original definition, unchanged.
Social norm BCT 6.3. Information about others’ approval
Provide information about what other people think about the behaviour. The information clarifies whether others will like, approve or disapprove of what the person is doing or will do.
Tell the staff at the hospital ward that staff at all other wards approve of washing their hands according to the guidelines.
Coded as per original decision, unchanged.
Social norm BCT 9.1. Credible source
Present verbal or visual communication from a credible source in favour of or against the behaviour. Note: code this BCT if source generally agreed on as credible, e.g. health professionals, celebrities or words used to indicate expertise or leader in field and if the communication has the aim of persuading.
Present a speech given by a high-status professional to emphasise the importance of not exposing patients to Unnecessary radiation by ordering X-rays for back pain.
Coded as per original decision, unchanged.
Social norm BCT 10.4. Social reward
Arrange verbal or non-verbal reward if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes ‘positive reinforcement’).
Congratulate the person for each day they eat a reduced fat diet.
Changed:
Arrange praise, commendation, applause or thanks if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes ‘positive reinforcement’).
New example, relevant to healthcare worker context:
arrange for a family doctor to be sent a thank you note for each week that they reduce their level of antibiotic prescribing.
Reason for change: the definition of social reward as ‘verbal or non-verbal reward’ is insufficient to distinguish a ‘social’ reward from other types of reward. Further, in the present study, we are interested in only those social rewards that rely on social norms. Praise, commendation, applause or thanks are all injunctive norms messages, providing the target with information about the values, beliefs or attitudes of the reference group, conveying social approval or disapproval.
Social norm BCT 10.5 Social incentive
Inform that a verbal or non-verbal reward will be delivered if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes ‘positive reinforcement’).
Inform that they will be congratulated for each day that they eat a reduced fat diet.
Changed:
Inform that praise, commendation, applause or thanks will be delivered if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes ‘positive reinforcement’).
New example, relevant to healthcare worker context:
Promise a family doctor in advance that they will be sent a thank you note for each week that they reduce their level of antibiotic prescribing.
Reason for change
The definition of social reward as ‘verbal or non-verbal reward’ is insufficient to distinguish a ‘social’ reward from other types of reward. Further, in the present study, we are interested in only those social rewards that rely on social norms. Praise, commendation, applause or thanks are all injunctive norms messages, providing the target with information about the values, beliefs or attitudes of the reference group, conveying social approval or disapproval.
Other BCT (not social norm) 7.1. Prompts and cues
Introduce or define environmental or social stimulus with the purpose of prompting or cueing the behaviour. The prompt or cue would normally occur at the time or place of performance Note: when a stimulus is linked to a specific action in an if-then plan including one or more of frequency, duration or intensity also code 1.4, Action planning.
Put a sticker on the bathroom mirror to remind people to brush their teeth
Coded as per original definition, unchanged.
Other BCT (not social norm) 3.1. Social support (unspecified)
Advise on, arrange or provide social support (e.g. from friends, relatives, colleagues, buddies or staff) or non-contingent praise or reward for performance of the behaviour. It includes encouragement and counselling, but only when it is directed at the behaviour. Note: attending a group class and/or mention of ‘follow-up’ does not necessarily apply this BCT, support must be explicitly mentioned; if practical, code 3.2, Social support (practical); if emotional, code 3.3, Social support (emotional) (includes ‘Motivational interviewing’ and ‘Cognitive Behavioural Therapy’).
Advise the person to call a ‘buddy’ when they experience an urge to smoke.
Arrange for a housemate to encourage continuation with the behaviour change programme.
Give information about a self-help group that offers support for the behaviour.
Coded as per original definition, unchanged.
Other BCT (not social norm) 4.1. Instructions on how to perform the behaviour
Advise or agree on how to perform the behaviour (includes ‘Skills training’). Note: when the person attends classes such as exercise or cookery, code 4.1, Instruction on how to perform the behaviour, 8.1, Behavioural practice/rehearsal and 6.1, Demonstration of the behaviour.
Advise the person how to put a condom on a model of a penis correctly
Coded as per original definition, unchanged.
Other BCT (not social norm) 5.1. Information on Health Consequences
Provide information (e.g. written, verbal, visual) about health consequences of performing the behaviour. Note: consequences can be for any target, not just the recipient(s) of the intervention; emphasising importance of consequences is not sufficient; if information about emotional consequences, code 5.6, Information about emotional consequences; if about social, environmental or unspecified consequences code 5.3, Information about social and environmental consequences.
Coded as per original definition, unchanged.