Skip to main content

Table 1 Included studies

From: Strategies for effective dissemination of research to United States policymakers: a systematic review

Lead author, Year Theory/framework Method and sample size Level and branch of government Source (i.e., where/who is the information coming from) Message (i.e., what information is being shared) Channel (i.e., how is the information getting to the target audience) Audience (i.e., who is the information going to)
Allen, 2015 [45] The operationalization framework Qualitative; 29 Interviews Local/Municipal Policymakers and advocates from three cities Information about needle exchanges Public education campaign about needle exchange; public pressure put on policymakers’ Policymakers (broadly defined)
Austin, 2017 [47] The 'triggers-to-action' framework Qualitative (case study) State; Legislative An academic-community-government partnership Harm caused to consumers by dietary supplements for weight loss and muscle building Peer-reviewed recommendations; Media outreach campaign, via websites, email listservs and social media; Fact sheet, talking points, summary of research, the original legal research article State legislators
Brim, 1983 [46] None Qualitative (case study) Other; Legislative Foundation Reports Child Development Current state and past trends for children and families; budget analysis; national survey; federal expenditures Reports; books; collaboration between foundations and the public sector; grants to advocacy organizations; compilation of data Senate Subcommittee on Children and Youth Hearings
Brownson, 2011 [38] None Quantitative; 291 State; Executive, Legislative State-level policy makers Information about mammography screening Policy briefs (data/state; data/local; story/state; story/local) State-level policymakers
Bumbarger, 2012 [48] Interactive Systems Framework Qualitative (case study) State; Executive Penn State Prevention Research Center program staff and researchers Ongoing information about evidence-based practices and policies One-page fact sheets, PowerPoint presentations, research briefs, short YouTube videos, and infographics Administrative/Executive Representatives from related offices
Coffman, 2009 [50] None Qualitative (case study) State; Legislative CHBRP faculty and staff, who review and synthesize existing literature Medical effectiveness and costs of interventions CHBRP medical effectiveness reports State legislators
Crowley, 2018 [32] Research-to-Policy (RPC) Collaboration Model Mixed Methods; 10 legislative offices and 22 prevention experts were trained Federal; Legislative Rapid Response Researcher Network Research information based on legislative inquiry In-person meetings and web conferencing Federal legislative offices; legislators and legislative staff
Friese, 2009 [27] Two Communities Theory and Community Dissonance Theory Qualitative (Interviews); 14 interviews Federal, State; Executive, Legislative Researchers who presented at Family Impact Seminars between 1993-2002 Child support, early childhood education, helping poor children succeed, long-term care, moving families out of poverty, parenting, prescription drugs, and welfare reform Presenting or testifying before Congress, legislatures, and committees; responding to individual questions from policymakers and staff via phone and email; serving on committees, advisory panels, and task forces; and writing briefs, memoranda, and contract research reports Legislators, legislative aides, governor's office staff, legislative service agency staff, and agency representatives
Garcia, 2016 [49] Consolidated Framework (Damschroder) Quantitative; 96 County; Executive Research Evidence (undefined) Child welfare practices, mental health, juvenile justice, and other social service areas Academic journals, training manuals, presentations, consultants, intervention developers, and web-based clearinghouse County-level executive policymakers
Hopkins, 2018 [39] Social Network Theory Quantitative; 56 CSS members State; Executive CSSS leaders and members Research related to science education policy Person-to-person exchanges State education agency leaders
Jabbar, 2015 [53] Advocacy Coalition Framework and Operationalization Framework Qualitative; 53 interviews State, Local/Municipal; Executive, Legislative Intermediary organizations, researchers, journalists Incentive-based reforms for public school systems Conversations, news stories, press releases, targeted reports, informational cards, blog posts, Twitter Local, state, and federal policymakers
Jamieson, 1999 [51] None Qualitative (case study) State; Executive Analysis of Washington state child welfare data Foster care, guardianship, and racial differences in foster care system Publications; presentations to a wide array of audiences; repetition of focused messages via presentations, newsletters, news media, public forums, articles, participation in work groups, meetings with key individuals, and broad distribution of reports; placing the data in a local context DSHS administration, social workers, legislators, judges, the attorney general, tribal councils and American Indian communities, African American communities, child advocates, court-appointed special advocates, and private agencies
Lane, 2011 [33] knowledge-value mapping (KVM) Other (Comparative effectiveness study design); (spokespeople for) 6 national organizations Federal; Executive Academic journals; training programs and conference proceedings; relevant websites; white papers and internal reports from other sources; experts; Assistive technology agencies Research on assistive technology devices and services Electronic media (email, listserv, websites); conferences, presentations, workshops; trainings/certificate programs; electronic media (email, listserv, websites); conference proceedings, presentations, and workshops; white papers and position papers; small-group meetings with policy makers and staff members in government agencies Public policy agencies
Massell, 2012 [43] None Mixed Methods (Interview, Survey); 49 interviews / 300+ surveys State; Executive Research; Program evaluation; Research-based guidance; Data on schools in your state; Advice from colleagues within the SEA and external practitioners Research on improving low-performing schools (broad & generic) Advice from own colleagues; school data; published original research, research syntheses or summaries, and meta-analyses; results of program evaluations (least often cited) State education agency leaders
McBride, 2008 [34] None Qualitative (focus groups); 3 groups (17, 20+, 20+) Federal; Legislative Researchers Health services research (broadly) Brochures, fact sheets, working papers/ reports, policy briefs, PowerPoint presentation slides, press releases, Web sites, and other products (provided by researchers) National Organizations and congressional staffers
McGinty, 2019 [35] Advocacy Coalition Framework Qualitative (Interviews, Case Study); 25 Federal, State Researchers and stakeholders who worked as collaborators in each of the cases Relevant research for gun policy, opioid policy, and drug control policy Coalition convening, working groups, sign-on process to endorse recommendations; public release of recommendations; policy dissemination and education via state forums; legislation development; formal policy advocacy; policy implementation support Policymakers (general)
McVay, 2016 [31] None Quantitative; 266 State, Local/Municipal; Executive Public health researchers (General) Generalized researched findings (no specific topic) Face-to-face meetings, academic journals, press releases, policy briefs, and media interviews Local, state, and/or federal public health departments
Meisel, 2019 [30] None Qualitative (interviews); 18 interviews Federal, State, Other; Other (never specified) Economic research Treatment and economic research in substance use disorder Informal networks with researchers; person-to-person communication; conferences and webinars; literature reviews and summary reports Policymakers (general)
Mosley, 2012 [52] None Qualitative (Interviews, Observations) ; 38 interviews State; Executive, Legislative Co-sponsors of bill (9 organizations) Cost effectiveness & experiences by youth who age out of foster care Press releases, press conferences, one-page summaries, and other communications; testimonial evidence State policymakers
Nelson, 2009 [54] Weiss typology Qualitative (Interviews, Focus Groups); 10 interviews; 55 participants in 5 focus groups Federal, State, Local/Municipal; Executive, Legislative Evidence (peer-reviewed and commissioned studies); Organizations and individuals; Publications and conferences; electronic sources Educational information influential to No Child Left Behind Newspapers; media reports; constituent feedback; data (state and local databases, evaluation data from previous initiatives, data collected from multiple databases); personal experience and the experience of others from similar schools, districts, and states; and empirical research evidence Education policymakers, staff, and advocates
Purtle, 2019 [55] Weiss typology Qualitative (Interviews, content analysis of newspaper articles); 44 interviews, unknown # of articles County; Executive Published data (County Health Rankings) from the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute County-level health information County Health Rankings Report County Health Department officials
Sorian, 2002 [58] None Qualitative, Quantitative; 292 surveys State; Legislative, Executive Publications and conferences; electronic sources; organizations (public and private) and individuals General health policy issues Electronic and hard copy print materials State legislative policymakers
Valentine, 2014 [41] None Qualitative (Interviews, Focus Groups) State; Executive Senior advisors from to policymakers from state departments of mental health in management positions and Policy director from a national nonprofit organization State-level mental health disparities Mental health care disparity report cards State mental health executive; audience for mental health care disparity report cards would be state policymakers
Weiss, 2008 [29] Weiss typology "Imposed Use" Qualitative (Interviews); 16 interviews Federal, State, Local/Municipal; Executive US Department of Education expert panel Recommendations for substance abuse prevention programs for implementation in primary and secondary educational settings List of Exemplary and Promising Prevention Programs School district stakeholders
Weissman, 2015 [42] None Quantitative; 46 states, 60 (out of 100) directors State; Executive Published research; experts; own data; patients Application of CER coverage decisions RCTs; Consensus statements; Systematic Reviews; Expert Opinion; Observational studies (own data; other data); patient experience/consumer advocacy State Medicaid Directors and Pharmacy Directors
Yanovitsky, 2019 [36] Message Framing Theory; Weiss typology Qualitative; Thematic and content analysis of 786 documents Federal; Legislative Government, academic, think-tank research, anecdotal evidence, and 'generic' Research evidence on childhood obesity Congressional committee hearings & bills Federal legislators and their staff
Zelizer, 2018 [44] None Quantitative; 74 legislators (1,216 legislator-bill dyads) State; Legislative Legislative staffer who worked for the Veterans Caucus Information on proposed legislation In-person meeting with one Veterans caucus staffer State senator or representative