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Table 5 Adjusted mean differences of study outcomes at follow-up based on mixed effects models

From: Comparing effects of two higher intensity feedback interventions with simple feedback on improving staff communication in nursing homes—the INFORM cluster-randomized controlled trial

  Adjusted difference in least-square means* [95% CI] p value
Basic assisted feedback–simple feedback Enhanced assisted feedback–simple feedback Enhanced assisted feedback–basic assisted feedback
Number of care aides
Number of care units
Primary outcome
 Formal interactions 0.17 [0.03; 0.32] 0.021 0.17 [0.01; 0.33] 0.035 0.004 [−0.16; 0.16] 0.961
Secondary staff outcomes
 Evaluation 0.09 [−0.01; 0.20] 0.083 0.03 [−0.08; 0.14] 0.587 −0.06 [−0.05; 0.18] 0.292
 Social capital 0.09 [0.01; 0.17] 0.026 0.07 [−0.01; 0.15] 0.093 −0.02 [−0.10; 0.07] 0.686
 Slack time 0.15 [−0.02; 0.31] 0.078 0.03 [−0.15; 0.20] 0.762 −0.09 [−0.30; 0.06] 0.190
 Conceptual research use 0.06 [−0.05; 0.17] 0.270 −0.02 [−0.14; 0.10] 0.724 −0.08 [−0.20; 0.04] 0.171
 Instrumental research use −0.009 [−0.08; 0.06] 0.808 0.003 [−0.08; 0.08] 0.941 0.01 [−0.07; 0.09] 0.766
 Psychological empowerment, meaning −0.03 [−0.09; 0.03] 0.373 −0.03 [−0.09; 0.04] 0.437 0.002 [−0.07; 0.07] 0.953
 Job satisfaction 0.07 [−0.03; 0.16] 0.179 −0.05 [−0.16; 0.05] 0.301 0.12 [0.22;0.02] 0.025
Secondary resident outcomes
 Percent of residents whose responsive behaviors worsened 0.02 [−2.4; 2.5] 0.989 2.9 [0.3; 5.6] 0.031 2.9 [0.2; 5.7] 0.036
 Percent of residents whose pain worsened 0.1 [−2.6; 2.8] 0.935 −1.6 [−4.6; 1.3] 0.278 −1.8 [−4.8; 1.3] 0.256
  1. Bold, p < 0.05