Skip to main content

Table 4 Study outcomes (M ± SD) by study arm at baseline and follow-up

From: Comparing effects of two higher intensity feedback interventions with simple feedback on improving staff communication in nursing homes—the INFORM cluster-randomized controlled trial

  Baseline Follow-up
Simple feedback (control) Basic assisted feedback Enhanced assisted feedback Simple feedback (control) Basic assisted feedback Enhanced assisted feedback
Number of care aides 751 836 615 767 808 578
Number of care units 57 61 45 57 61 45
Primary outcome
 Formal Interactions 1.35 ± 0.79 1.48 ± 0.80 1.42 ± 0.84 1.40 ± 0.81 1.56 ± 0.80 1.53 ± 0.78
Secondary staff outcomes
 Evaluation 3.66 ± 0.63 3.77 ± 0.59 3.66 ± 0.61 3.74 ± 0.61 3.82 ± 0.54 3.76 ± 0.62
 Social capital 4.05 ± 0.50 4.10 ± 0.48 4.07 ± 0.48 4.02 ± 0.49 4.09 ± 0.51 4.07 ± 0.48
 Slack time 3.49 ± 0.86 3.57 ± 0.81 3.43 ± 0.83 3.49 ± 0.91 3.53 ± 0.82 3.47 ± 0.82
 Conceptual research use 4.09 ± 0.73 4.19 ± 0.70 4.03 ± 0.74 4.05 ± 0.77 4.13 ± 0.70 4.03 ± 0.77
 Instrumental research use 4.63 ± 0.58 4.62 ± 0.59 4.62 ± 0.60 4.62 ± 0.58 4.59 ± 0.58 4.62 ± 0.56
 Psychological empowerment, meaning 4.57 ± 0.48 4.58 ± 0.48 4.60 ± 0.49 4.57 ± 0.48 4.53 ± 0.50 4.54 ± 0.48
 Job satisfaction 4.24 ± 0.62 4.33 ± 0.57 4.22 ± 0.62 4.25 ± 0.65 4.29 ± 0.63 4.18 ± 0.64
Secondary resident outcomes
 Percent of residents whose responsive behaviors worsened 10.9 ± 6.6 12.2 ± 6.3 13.0 ± 5.6 10.5 ± 5.8 11.1 ± 6.1 13.1 ± 6.6
 Percent of residents whose pain worsened 10.6 ± 5.8 10.2 ± 6.9 8.9 ± 4.0 10.6 ± 5.4 10.8 ± 6.1 7.6 ± 5.8
  1. Notes: Possible ranges of scores are 0-4 for formal interactions, 1-5 for all secondary staff outcomes, and 0-100 for secondary resident outcomes. Higher scores reflect better outcomes in primary and secondary staff outcomes