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Table 3 Main health indicators at country level

From: Implementation and evaluation of nonclinical interventions for appropriate use of cesarean section in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a multisite hybrid effectiveness-implementation type III trial

Indicator, 2017-2019* Argentina Burkina Faso Thailand Vietnam
Population (millions) 44.9 20.3 66.4 95.7
Total fertility rate 2.3 5.3 1.5 2.0
Maternal mortality ratio 39 320 37 43
Neonatal mortality rate 6.4 24.7 5.0 10.6
Institutional delivery rate 100% 80% 99% 94%
Cesarean section rate 36% 3% 33% 27%
Risk of impoverishing expenditure for surgical care 3.9% 75.9% 6.3% 27.4%
GDP per capita (PPP international $) 2018 20,611 1985 19,051 7478
Income group of the country Upper-middle income Lower income Upper-middle income Middle income
  1. *Latest estimation according to the following source of information: (1) WHO Statistical Information System : https://www.who.int/whosis/indicators/en/; (2) World Bank national accounts data: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP. CD
  2. Maternal mortality ratio: number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births
  3. Neonatal mortality rate: number of newborn deaths per 1000 live births
  4. Impoverishing expenditure is defined as direct out-of-pocket payments for surgical and anesthesia care which drive people below a poverty threshold (using a threshold of $1.25 PPP/day).
  5. Risk of impoverishing is the proportion of population at risk of impoverishing expenditure when surgical care is required