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Table 5 Behavior change techniques and number of interventions targeting health care providers that included specific behavior change techniques, behavior change techniques taxonomy volume 1 (BCTTv1) hierarchical clusters, and intervention content examples

From: Public target interventions to reduce the inappropriate use of medicines or medical procedures: a systematic review

BCT BCTTv1 hierarchical clusters Examples extracted from descriptions of the interventions Frequency
1.3 Goal setting (outcome) 1. Goals and planning Provision of individual prescribing profiles depicting: (1) the proportion of adult bronchitis patients receiving antibiotic treatment (target 10 percent or less); (2) the proportion of these antibiotics belonging to a first-line group (erythromycin, doxycycline, tetracycline) (target 70% or more); and (3) the proportion of these antibiotics that are ineffective against proven bacterial causes of uncomplicated acute bronchitis (target 0%). 1
2.2 Feedback on behavior 2. Feedback and monitoring Prescribing feedback, clinical audit with feedback 3
3.1 Social support (unspecified) 3. Social support Interventions that inform best practice prescribing and that support health professionals manage patient expectations 1
3.2 Social support (practical) 3. Social support This intervention will (1) provide a range of patient education materials to physician offices without charge, (2) provide ongoing information about antibiotic-use rates and resistance in the community, (3) provide feedback about prescribing by practice, and (4) serve as a general resource on issues of antibiotic prescribing and resistance 3
4.1 Instruction on how to perform the behavior 4. Shaping knowledge Academic detailing to promote appropriate antibiotic use; practice guidelines which included with the patient profiles for adults with bronchitis and children with pharyngitis were compatible with those produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 15
4.2 Information about Antecedents 4. Shaping knowledge Clinical practice guidelines for common respiratory illnesses 13
5.1 Information about health consequences 5. Natural consequences A reference card providing easy-to-read facts about symptoms and treatments for ARIs 9
5.2 Salience of consequences 5. Natural consequences Emphasis on AMR 2
8.2 Behavior substitution 8. Repetition and substitution Prescription pads with explanations on symptoms and appropriate treatment options (to be given to patients instead of antibiotic prescriptions) 9
9.1 Credible source 9. Comparison of outcomes Endorsement by CDC was designed to increase the credibility of key messages. 1
10.1 Material incentive (behavior) 10. Reward and threat An intervention intends to reward physicians for reducing pharmacy costs for their patients, one component of which was to increase their prescribing of generic drugs 1
10.2 Material reward (behavior) 10. Reward and threat Reward given to physicians for reducing pharmacy costs for their patients, one component of which was to increase their prescribing of generic drugs 1
12.1 Restructuring the physical environment 12. Antecedents Waiting room materials (CDC posters and patient reference cards) 4
12.5 Adding objects to the environment 12. Antecedents Mass media strategies were undertaken including advertising using billboards, television, radio and magazines. 10
14.2 Punishment 14. Scheduled consequences Regulations that require prescriptions for antibiotics to be retained and registered in pharmacies and imposes fines to the owners of the pharmacies for non-compliance. 2
15 10   75