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Table 4 Summary of application of nudge strategies in 42 randomised controlled trials included in this study

From: Nudge strategies to improve healthcare providers’ implementation of evidence-based guidelines, policies and practices: a systematic review of trials included within Cochrane systematic reviews

Nudge strategy Application in RCTs included in this review Number (n, %)
Priming nudge Stickers displayed at point of care, displaying problematic scans to primary care providers when high risk patients presents, treatment reminders/flags on online records, visual prime (picture/smells) to prompt targeted behaviour, reminder posters in display area, story board with priority problems and endorsement visually displayed, availability of resources to prime targeted behaviour (pocket hand rub, ball pen, posters), pocket-sized cards/laminated messages, mailing of questions regarding targeted behaviour to prime thinking of action, point-of-care prompts to assess/screen, reminders to measure/assess in electronic medical records at point of care 29, 69%
Norms and messenger nudge Sending guidelines by email/mail endorsed by a reputable organisation (e.g. chair, president or governing organisation), presenting information on performance relative to other providers and units in the area, letters signed by opinion leaders, resources endorsed by directors of the unit 17, 40%
Salience/affect/affect nudge Presenting vignettes with relevant patients’ cases to physicians, personal consequences signs 8, 19%
Default nudge Restricting options where not relevant to a particular patient/case (shading of boxes) 1, 2.4%
Commitment/ego nudge Providers to publicly declare their commitment/ ego to reducing inappropriate implementation behaviour/conducting implementation behaviour, displaying participation in improvement initiatives publicly 1, 2.4%
Incentives nudge Provision of continuing medical education points, certificates 3, 7.0%