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Table 3 Design and characteristics of controlled studies (N = 15)

From: Effects of de-implementation strategies aimed at reducing low-value nursing procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (year), Country Design study Setting Target group Type of low value care Primary outcome (s) Posttest intervention group (%)a Posttest Control group (%)a Statistical analyses performed (Yes/No) Positive significant effect (Yes/No)
Desveaux et al. (2017) [38]b Cluster RCT Nursing home Nurses Antipsychotic prescribing (APM) The days dispensed APM in the previous week 624/2947 (21.2%) 898/4162 (21.6%) Yes No
Evans et al. 1997, USA [39] RCT Nursing home Gerontologic nurses Restraint use The prevalence of restraint use 18/127 (14.2%) 79/184 (42.9%) Yes Yes
Fitzpatrick (1997), USA [40] Controlled before after Hospital Critical care and intermediate nurse Restraint use The incidence of restraint use 29/91 (31.9%) 8/51 (15.7%) Yes No
Gulpers et al. (2011), The Netherlands [41] Controlled before after Nursing home Psychogeriatric nurses Restraint use The rate of residents with at least 1 physical restraint 135/250 (54.0%) 107/155 (69.0%) Yes Yes
Gulpers et al. (2013), the Netherlands [42] Controlled before after Nursing home Psychogeriatric nurses Restraint use The rate of residents with at least 1 physical restraint 80/134 (59.7%) 68/91 (74.7%) Yes Yes
Huang et al. (2009) [43]c Controlled before after Hospital Nurses Restraint use The reported Practice of Physical Restraint Use 40.88 39.20 Yes Yes
Huizing et al. (2009), The Netherlands [44] Cluster RCT Nursing home Nurses and registered Nurses Restraint use The use of restraints per residents 25/53 (47.2%) 15/37 (40.5%) Yes No
Huizing et al. (2009), The Netherlands [45] Cluster RCT Nursing home Nurses Restraint use The use of restraints per residents 81/126 (64.3%) 69/115 (60.0%) Yes No
Koczy et al. (2011), Germany [46] Cluster RCT Nursing home Nurses Restraint use The complete cessation of restraint use 173/208 (83.2%) 114/125 (91.2%) Yes No
Kopke et al. (2012), Germany [47] RCT Nursing home Nurses Restraint use The percentage of residents with at least 1 physical restraint 423/1868 (22.6%) 525/1802 (29.1%) Yes Yes
Kwok et al. (2005), China [48]b RCT Hospital Geriatric nurses Restraint use The proportion of subjects ever restrained N/A N/A Yes No
Lai et al. (2011), China [49] Controlled before after Hospital Nurses Restraint use The prevalence of restraint use 299/612 (48.9%) 21/155 (13.5%) Yes No
Pellfolk et al. (2010), Sweden [50] Cluster RCT Residential care facilities Registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and nurse’s aides Restraint use The use of restraint use 30/149 (20.1%) 53/139 (38.1%) Yes Yes
Testad et al. (2010), Norway [51]b Cluster RCT Nursing home Nurses Restraint use The use of restraint use N/A N/A Yes Yes
Testad et al. (2016), Norway [52] Cluster RCT Nursing home Nurses Restraint use The use of restraint use 15/83 (18.1%) 10/114 (8.8%) Yes Yes
  1. N/A not available
  2. aNumbers based on the extracted results used for the meta-analyses
  3. bData for meta-analyses not available
  4. cData was not measured at patient level