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Table 3 Characteristics of included citations (n = 218)

From: Understanding the public’s role in reducing low-value care: a scoping review

Characteristic N (%)
Year of publication  
  1980–1999 3 (1.4)
  2000–2009 23 (10.5)
  2010–2019 192 (88.1)
Continent of origin  
  North America 146 (66.7)
  Europe 41 (18.7)
  Australia 20 (9.2)
  Asia 8 (3.7)
  Africa 1 (0.5)
  South America 1 (0.5)
  Oceania 1 (0.5)
Type of article  
  Original Research 138 (63.3)
    Observationala 34 (15.5)
    Qualitative 28 (12.8)
    Randomized controlled trials 21 (9.6)
    Non-randomized experimental 13 (5.9)
    Knowledge synthesis 12 (5.5)
    Consensus method 11 (5.0)
    Mixed methods 8 (3.7)
    Community jury 8 (3.7)
    Otherb 3 (1.7)
  Non-original research 80 (36.5)
    Narrative review 34 (15.5)
    Editorial/commentary 34 (15.5)
    Website items 10 (4.5)
    Policy report 2 (0.9)
Type of low-value care  
  Low-value care in general 95 (43.4)
  Specific low-value practice(s) 124 (56.6)
    Test 38 (17.4)
    Treatment 69 (31.5)
    Both 16 (7.3)
Clinical setting  
  Hospital 42 (19.2)
  Primary care 35 (16.0)
  Emergency Department 22 (10.0)
  Communityc 27 (12.4)
  Not specified 92 (42.0)
Level of public engagementd  
  Patient interaction 156 (71.6)
  Research 56 (25.7)
  Policy/administration 33 (15.1)
  1. aIncludes cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies
  2. bIncludes one case report and two public health outreach studies
  3. cIncludes outpatient clinics, long-term care homes, dentistry, and community pharmacies
  4. dDescribes where public involvement occurred. Clinical interaction: strategies for public involvement that were employed during a clinical interaction such as a primary care visit; research: involving the public in conducting or evaluating research aiming to reduce low-value care such as patient-reported outcomes; policy/administration: involving the public in policy or administration level initiatives to reduce low-value care, such as prioritizing practices for disinvestment