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Table 1 Operational definitions for key concepts

From: Understanding the public’s role in reducing low-value care: a scoping review

Term Operational definition Example
Low-value care Medical tests and treatments that meet one or more of the following criteria: lack of efficacy, not cost-effective, or risks exceeded benefit Antibiotics for viral upper respiratory tract infections
Public Patients, caregivers, and potential patients without advanced healthcare knowledge A patient attending an appointment at a primary care clinic
  Excludes clinicians (any front-line healthcare professional), healthcare researchers, and healthcare administrators  
Public involvement The engagement of members of the public in an initiative aiming to reduce low-value care Engaging a patient in shared decision-making to explore their preferences and the potential risks and benefits to a low-value diagnostic imaging test