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Table 6 Mechanism analysis

From: A systematic review of empirical studies examining mechanisms of implementation in health

StudyAimsTheory, framework, modelMechanism measurementMediation testing citation
Qualitative
Bardosh et al. 2017 [16]NConsolidated framework for implementation research [68]InterviewsNone
Brewster et al. 2015 [17]YImplementation innovation framework [69]InterviewsNone
Carrera and Lambooij 2015 [18]NTechnology acceptance model [70]; Theory of planned behavior [65]; Model of personal computing utilization [71]Focus groupsNone
Frykman et al. 2014 [19]NDirection, competence, opportunity and motivation (DCOM) [72, 73]Interviews; observationsNone
Wiener-Ogilvie et al. 2008 [20]NNone reportedInterviews; focus groupsNone
Quantitative- randomized
Atkins et al. 2008 [21]YDiffusion of innovation theory [63]Interviews; self-report[74]
Baer et al. 2009 [22]YNone reportedinterviews; self-report[75]
Bonetti et al. 2005 [23]NTheory of planned behavior [65]; Social cognitive theory [76, 77]Self-report[78, 79]
Garner et al. 2011 [24]NTheory of planned behavior [65]Self-report[80, 81]
Glisson et al. 2010 [25]NNone reportedSelf-report, audiotape coding and interviews[82]
Holth et al. 2011 [26]YNone reportedInterviews; self-report[83]
Lee et al. 2018 [27]YTheoretical domains framework [84]Self-report, secondary analysis[85, 86]
Lochman et al. 2009 [28]NDiffusion of innovation theory [87]Coder ratings[88]
Rapkin et al. 2017 [29]YNone reportedSelf-report[89]
Rohrbach et al. 1993 [30]NDiffusion of innovation theory [64]Interviews; self-report; observationsNone
Seys et al. 2018 [31]YNone reportedChart review; self-report[78]
Williams et al. 2014 [32]YDiffusion of innovation theory [87]Self-report[90, 91]
Williams et al., 2017 (66)YOrganizational culture theory [32] and Theory of planned behavior [65]Self-report[92]
Quantitative- non-randomized
Aarons et al. 2009 [34]YInstitutional theory [93], Theory of planned behavior [65], Theory of perceived organizational support [94]Self-report[78]
Becker et al. 2016 [35]YDiffusion of innovation theory [64]Self-reportNone
Beenstock et al. 2012 [36]NTheoretical domains framework [66]Self-report[95]
Beets et al. 2008 [37]YTheory driven evaluation [96]; Diffusion of innovation theory [63]Self-report[97, 98]
Bonetti et al. 2009 [38]NTheory of planned behavior [65]; Social cognitive theory [99]; Operant learning theory [100]; Action planning [101]; Common sense self-regulation model [102]; Precaution adoption process model [103]; Stage theory [103, 104]Self-report; objective measure[78, 79]
Chou et al. 2011 [39]NGoal setting theory [105]; Goal commitment theory [106]Self-report[80, 107]
Cummings et al. 2017 [40]NPromoting action on research in health services (PARiHS) [67]Self-report[108]
David and Schiff 2017 [41]YDiffusion of innovation theory [87, 109]Self-report[110]
Edmunds et al. 2014 [42]YEPIS framework [111]Self-report[80, 112]
Gnich et al. 2018 [43]YTheoretical domains framework [66]Self-reportNone
Guerrero et al. 2018 [44]YTheory on middle manager s[69]Self-report[113]
Huis et al. 2013 [45]NNone reportedObservations; self-report; website visitor registration; logs; field Notes; effect evaluation; quiznone
Little et al. 2015 [46]NDiffusion of innovation theory [64]Self-report[114,115,116]
Llasus et al. 2014 [47]NKnowledge to action conceptual framework [117]Self-report[78, 79, 95]
Nelson and Steele 2007 [48]NNone reportedSelf-reportNone
Potthoff et al. 2017 [49]YDual process model of behavior [118]Self-report[79]
Presseau et al. 2016 [50]YTheory of planned behavior [65]Self-reportNone
Simmonds et al. 2012 [51]YNone reportedSelf-report[78]
Stockdale et al. 2018 [52]YNone reportedSelf-report[119]
Wanless et al. 2015 [53]YNone reportedSelf-report, observation[110]
Yamada et al. 2017 [62]YPromoting action on research in health services (PARiHS) [120]Self-report, chart reviewNone
Mixed methods
Armson et al. 2018 [54]YTheoretical domains framework [66]Interviews; self-reportNone
Birken et al. 2015 [55]NHierarchical taxonomy of leader behavior [121]Interviews; self-report[95, 122]
Kauth et al. 2010 [56]YFixsen model [123]; Promoting action on research in health services (PARiHS) [120]Self-report; logsNone
Lukas et al. 2009 [57]YDiffusion of Innovations Theory [63, 124]Interviews[78]
Panzano et al. 2012 [58]YNone reportedSelf-report[78]
Rangachari et al. 2015 [59]NComplex systems theory [125]Infection rate; chart review; hospital records; logsNone
Shrubsole et al. 2018 [60]NTheoretical domains framework [66]Chart review; self-reportnone