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Table 5 Descriptive summary

From: A systematic review of empirical studies examining mechanisms of implementation in health

StudySettingSampleIntervention/InnovationComplex psychosocial interventionDesign
Bardosh et al. 2017 [16]Health care facilities, multiple countriesKey informants (researchers, Mhealth staff, clinic staff, government officials; n = 32)Mobile health applicationNQualitative, cross sectional, comparative case study, non-randomized
Brewster et al. 2015 [17]HospitalsHospitals (k = 10); hospital employees (hospital staff, n = 82; state hospital representatives n = 8)Initiative to reduce rehospitalization ratesNQualitative, descriptive, cross sectional, non-randomized
Carrera and Lambooij 2015 [18]Primary carePatients (n = 12); health care providers (n = 4)Blood pressure monitoring guidelinesNQualitative descriptive, cross sectional, non-randomized
Frykman et al. 2014 [19]Emergency departmentsDepartments (k = 2), health care providers (n = 11)Multi-professional teamwork guidelineNqualitative, longitudinal (2 assessment points, 21 months), comparative case study, non-randomized
Wiener-Ogilvie et al. 2008 [20]Primary careHealth care providers (n = 9)Asthma management guidelineNqualitative, cross sectional, comparative case study, non-randomized
Quantitative randomized
Atkins et al. 2008 [21]SchoolsTeachers (n = 127); mental health providers (n = 21)Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder guidelinesYquantitative, longitudinal (5 assessment points, 2 years), randomized
Baer et al. 2009 [Substance abuse treatment facilitiesSubstance abuse treatment facilities (k = 6); Mental health providers (n = 118)Motivational InterviewingYquantitative, longitudinal (3 assessment points, 6 months), randomized
Bonetti et al. 2005 [23]Primary careHealth care providers (n = 152)Spinal X-ray referral guidelinesNquantitative, longitudinal (2 assessment points, 2 months), randomized control trial
Garner et al. 2011 [24]Substance abuse treatment facilitiesSubstance abuse treatment facilities (k = 29); mental health providers (n = 95)Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach and Assertive Continuing CareYquantitative, longitudinal (2 assessment points, 3 years), randomized control trial
Glisson et al. 2010 [25]Juvenile courtsCounties (k = 14); patients (n = 615)Multisystemic TherapyYquantitative, longitudinal (weekly, quarterly, 4 years), randomized control trial
Holth et al. 2011 [26]Behavioral health facilitiesMental health providers (n = 21); families (youth and primary caregiver; n = 41)Multisystemic Therapy, Cognitive Behavior TherapyYquantitative, longitudinal (monthly, 17 months), block randomized control trial
Lee et al. 2018 [27]Schools, child care facilitiesOrganizations (n = 121)Nutritional guidelinesNquantitative, longitudinal (two time points; 2 studies at 6 months, 1 study at 12 months), analysis of aggregated datasets from three randomized control trials
Lochman et al. 2009 [28]SchoolsSchools (k = 57); patients (n = 531); mental health providers (n = 49)Coping Power ProgramYquantitative, longitudinal (2 assessment points, 2 years), randomized
Rapkin et al. 2017 [29]Public library systemCommunities (k = 20); community members (n = 9374)Cancer screening and prevention education programsNquantitative, randomized, stepped-wedge, longitudinal
Rohrbach et al. 1993 [30]SchoolsSchools (k = 25); administrators (n = 25); teachers (n = 60); patients (n = 1147)Adolescent Alcohol Prevention TrialYquantitative, longitudinal (3 assessment points, 2 years), randomized control trial
Seys et al. 2018 [31]HospitalsCare teams (k = 19); care team members (n = 284); patients (n = 257)Care pathway for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseNquantitative, longitudinal (two assessment points, 30 days), randomized
Williams et al. 2014 [32]Behavioral health facilitiesBehavioral health facilities (k = 92); administrators (n = 311)Motivational InterviewingYquantitative, longitudinal (3 assessment points, 3 months), randomized control trial
Williams et al. 2017 [33]Behavioral health facilitiesOrganizations (k = 14); clinicians (n = 475)Evidence-based practice (not specified)Evidence-based practice implemented not reportedquantitative, longitudinal, randomized (4 assessment points, 4 years)
Quantitative non-randomized
Aarons et al. 2009 [34]Behavioral health facilitiesMental health care providers (n = 174)31 child or family evidence-based practicesYaquantitative, cross-sectional, survey, non-randomized
Becker et al. 2016 [35]Substance abuse treatment facilitiesClinics (k = 15); treatment providers (n = 60)Contingency management treatmentYquantitative, longitudinal (biweekly, 12 months), non-randomized
Beenstock et al. 2012 [36]HospitalsHospitals (k = 8); health care providers (n = 364)Smoking cessation guidelineNquantitative, cross sectional, survey, non-randomized
Beets et al. 2008 [37]SchoolsTeachers (n time 1 = 171, n time 2 = 191)Positive Action ProgramYquantitative, cross sectional at two time points, survey, non-randomized
Bonetti et al. 2009 [38]Dentist officesHealth care providers (n = 133)Fissure sealant evidence-based practiceNquantitative, longitudinal, predictive cohort study (3 assessment points, 28 months), non-randomized
Chou et al. 2011 [39]Veterans AffairsHospitals (k = 132), health care providers (n = 2,438)Major depressive disorder screening guidelineNquantitative, cross sectional, survey, randomized
Cummings et al. 2017 [40]Nursing homesNursing homes (k = 7); nursing home staff (n = 333)Coaching for Impressive CareNquantitative, , non-randomized two-group crossover
David and Schiff 2017 [41]Health care system, multiple sitesHealth care providers (n = 77)Child-Parent PsychotherapyYquantitative, cross sectional, survey, non-randomized
Edmunds et al. 2014 [42]Behavioral health facilitiesMental health providers (n = 50)Cognitive Behavioral TherapyYquantitative, longitudinal, non-randomized
Gnich et al. 2018 [43]Dentist officesHealth care providers (n = 709)Fluoride varnish applicationNquantitative, longitudinal (2 assessment points, 18 months), non-randomized
Guerrero et al. 2018 [44]Behavioral health facilitiesBehavioral health facilities (k = 112), mental heal providers (n = 427)Contingency management treatment and medicationassisted treatmentYquantitative, longitudinal (2 assessment points), survey, non-randomized
Huis et al. 2013 [45]HospitalsHospitals (k = 3); departments (k = 67): health care providers (k = 2733)Hand hygiene guidelinesNquantitative, longitudinal, process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial
Little et al. 2015 [46]SchoolsSchool districts (k = 183); departments (k = 22)Tobacco Use Prevention EducationNquantitative, cross sectional, survey, non-randomized
Llasus et al. 2014 [47]University nursing programsNursing students (n = 174)Evidence-based practices (not specified)Nquantitative, descriptive, correlational, cross sectional, survey, non-randomized
Nelson and Steele 2007 [48]Health care system, multiple sitesMental health providers (n = 214)Evidence-based practices (not specified)Nquantitative, cross sectional, survey, non-randomized
Potthoff et al. 2017 [49]Primary careOrganizations (k = 99); health care providers (n = 489)Type 2 diabetes management guidelineNquantitative, longitudinal (2 assessment points, 1 year), correlational, survey, non-randomized
Presseau et al. 2016 [50]Primary careFamily physicians (time 1 n = 632; time 2 n = 426)Prescription of hypertension medicationNquantitative, longitudinal (2 assessment points, approximately 8 months), 2X3 factorial
Simmonds et al. 2012 [51]Health care system, multiple sitesHealth care providers (n = 108)Lower back pain management guidelinesNquantitative, cross sectional, survey, non-randomized
Stockdale et al. 2018 [52]Veterans AffairsHealth care providers (n = 149), patients (n = 3329)Patient Centered Medical HomeNquantitative, cross sectional, survey, non-randomized
Wanless et al. 2015 [53]SchoolsSchools (k = 13); teachers (n = 1114)Responsive ClassroomYquantitative, longitudinal, non-randomized (focuses on one condition in an RCT)
Yamada et al. 2017 [62]HospitalsCare units (k = 32); nurses (n = 779); patients (n = 1,604)Instrumental and conceptual research use, evidence-based pain assessmentNquantitative, cross sectional, non-randomized
Mixed Methods
Armson et al. 2018 [54]Health care system, multiple sitesHealth care providers (n = 70)Breast cancer screening guidelineNmixed method, longitudinal, observational/ naturalist field study, non-randomized
Birken et al. 2015 [55]Health care system, multiple sitesOrganizations (k = 149); administrators (n = 223)Quality improvement initiative based on Chronic Care ModelNmixed method sequential, cross sectional, non-randomized
Kauth et al. 2010 [56]Veterans AffairsClinics (k = 21); mental health providers (n = 23)Cognitive Behavioral TherapyYmixed method, quasi-experimental, longitudinal (2 assessment points, 6 months), randomized
Lukas et al. 2009 [57]Veterans AffairsOrganizations (k = 78); health care providers, non-clinical staff (n = 3870)Advance Clinic AccessNmixed method, cross sectional, observational, non-randomized
Panzano et al. 2012 [58]Behavioral health facilitiesConsultants (n = 34); mental health providers (n = 70)Multisystemic Therapy, Dual Disorder Treatment, Ohio medication algorithms, Cluster-based Outcomes ManagementYmixed method, longitudinal, observational/ naturalist field study, non-randomized
Rangachari et al. 2015 [59]HospitalsDepartments (k = 2); health care providers (n = 101); administrators (n = 6)Central line bundle catheter insertion evidence-based practiceNprospective, longitudinal, exploratory field study, mixed-method analysis
Shrubsole et al. 2018 [60]HospitalsHospitals (k = 4); health care providers (n = 37); patients (n = 107)Aphasia management practicesNmixed method, longitudinal, cross-over, cluster randomized control trial
  1. aMultiple EBPs, some of which were complex psychosocial interventions