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Table 1 Terms and definitions

From: A systematic review of empirical studies examining mechanisms of implementation in health

MechanismProcess or event through which an implementation strategy operates to affect desired implementation outcomes.
PreconditionFactor that is necessary in order for an implementation mechanism to be activated.
StrategyMethods used to promote the implementation of an evidence-based practice or program
DeterminantAlso commonly referred to as “barriers” and “facilitators,” a factor that enables or hinders the implementation strategy from eliciting the desired effect.
MediatorIntervening variable that may account for the relationship between the implementation strategy and the implementation outcome.
ModeratorFactor that increase or decrease the level of influence of an implementation strategy.
Proximal outcomeThe product of the implementation strategy that is realized because of its specific mechanism of action, the most immediate, observable outcome in the causal pathway.
Distal outcomeOutcome that the implementation processes is ultimately intended to achieve, not the most immediate outcome in the causal pathway.