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Table 1 Characteristics of the 21 ICUs participating in the cluster-randomised controlled trial

From: Facilitating action planning within audit and feedback interventions: a mixed-methods process evaluation of an action implementation toolbox in intensive care

ICU characteristic Feedback with toolbox (n = 10) Feedback only (n = 11)
Hospital type, n (%)
 Academic 1 (10%) 2 (18%)
 Non-academic 9 (90%) 9 (72%)
Number of beds, median (IQR) 12.5 (9.0–15.5) 16.0 (11.0–24.0)
Number of admissions per year, median (IQR) 835 (645–1726) 1048 (757–2046)
 Surgical admissions 288 (215–1051) 423 (223–1167)
 Medical admissions 533 (313–697) 668 (524–774)
Number of QI team members, median (IQR) 4 (3–5) 4 (3–4)
Baseline pain management performance*, median (IQR) 62.5 (51.6–76.1) 70.2 (53.3–76.0)
 Indicator 1—measuring pain each shift 67.8 (61.8–82.3) 81.4 (58.4–87.8)
 Indicator 2—acceptable pain scores 87.5 (80.6–91.3) 85.3 (82.7–87.7)
 Indicator 3—repeating pain measurements within 1 h 14.4 (5.2–28.7) 13.0 (8.4–19.3)
 Indicator 4—normalised pain scores within 1 h 12.3 (4.1–22.6) 9.6 (6.8–15.7)
  1. ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, QI quality improvement
  2. *The performance composite was measured over the preceding 3 months and defined as the percentage of patient-shift observations during which pain was measured at least once and no unacceptable pain score was observed and/or unacceptable pain scores were followed by a repeated measurement and normalised within 1 h