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Table 7 Impact of incentives on measures of participant attendance and participation duration [n (participants) = 13,352; n (sites) = 132]

From: Using a RE-AIM framework to identify promising practices in National Diabetes Prevention Program implementation

  Change in number of visits Duration of participation (days)
Any participant attendance Participant attendance in months 7–12
Site characteristics
 Incentive: monetary − 0.0 − 0.2 − 2.6
 Incentive: non-monetary 1.8* 0.6* 27.8*
 Incentive: removal of program participation barriers − 1.0 − 0.1 − 8.3
 Site description: nonprofit organization1 − 1.9* − 0.9* − 38.1*
 Site description: educational1 − 0.1 − 0.3 − 6.1
 Site description: governmental1 − 0.8 − 0.6 − 34.4
 Site description: insurer1 − 1.5 − 1.0* − 57.0*
 Site description: business1 1.3 0.1 13.0
Participant characteristics
 Race/ethnicity: Hispanic2 − 0.6* 0.1 1.2
 Race/ethnicity: non-Hispanic Black2 − 0.8* − 0.2* − 10.5*
 Race/ethnicity: non-Hispanic other2 − 0.6* − 0.1* − 6.5*
 Prediabetes eligibility determination: prediabetes risk test3 − 0.6* − 0.1* − 11.2*
 Age 18–44 years4 − 2.8* − 0.6* − 41.8*
 Age 45–64 years4 − 1.2* − 0.2* − 18.0*
 Male5 0.2 0.0 2.1
 BMI: underweight/normal6 0.1 0.2 2.8
 BMI: overweight6 0.3* 0.1* 7.1*
  1. Source: DP12-1212 program evaluation data, October 1, 2014–September 30, 2016; DPRP data includes eligible participants who attended their first session between October 1, 2012, and September 30, 2015
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. 1Reference group: healthcare-based site
  4. 2Reference group: non-Hispanic white
  5. 3Reference group: blood test or history of gestational diabetes mellitus
  6. 4Reference group: 65+ years
  7. 5Reference group: female
  8. 6Reference group: had obesity