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Table 1 Methodological appraisal of studies

From: Implementation effectiveness of health interventions for indigenous communities: a systematic review

Observational Studies Benyshek et al., 2013 Christohper et al., 2008 Coppell et al., 2009 Kaholokula et al., 2014 Kakekagumick et al., 2013 Reilly et al., 2011 Shah et al., 2015
1) Was the study based on a random or pseudo-random sample? N Y Y N N N N
2) Were the criteria for inclusion in the sample clearly defined? Y Y Y Y N Y Y
3) Were confounding factors identified and strategies to deal with them stated? N N S Y N Y N
4) Were outcomes assessed using objective criteria? Y N Y Y Y Y Y
5) If comparisons are being made, was there sufficient description of the groups? N/A N/A Y Y N/A N/A N/A
6) Was follow up carried out over a sufficient time period? S Y Y S Y Y S
7) Were the outcomes of people who withdrew described and included in the analysis? Y N N/A N N N/A N/A
8) Were outcomes measured in a reliable way? Y S Y Y Y N Y
9) Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Y Y Y Y Y N Y
Total 11/16 9/16 15/16 13/18 8/16 8/14 9/14
Randomised Control Trial Brimblecombe et al. 2017 Canuto et al. 2012 Ho et al. 2008 Kaholokula et al. 2012 Karanja et al. 2010 Kolahdooz et al. 2014 Mendham et al. 2015 Simmons et al. 2008 Sinclair et al., 2013 Tomayko et al. 2016
1) Was the assignment to treatment groups truly random? Y Y N Y N Y Y Y Y S
2) Were participants blinded to treatment allocation? Y N N N N N N N N N
3) Was allocation to treatment groups concealed from the allocator? Y N N N N N N N Y N
4) Were the outcomes of people who withdrew described and included in the analysis? N/A Y N Y N N N N Y Y
5) Were those assessing outcomes blind to the treatment allocation? Y Y N U N N N N N N
6) Were the control and treatment groups comparable at entry? Y S Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
7) Were groups treated identically other than for the named interventions? Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
8) Were outcomes measured in the same way for all groups? Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y
9) Were outcomes measured in a reliable way? Y Y S Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
10) Was appropriate statistical analyses used? Y Y Y Y Y Y Y S Y Y
Total 18/18 15/20 9/20 14/20 10/20 12/20 12/20 9/20 16/20 13/20
Qualitative Studies English et al., 2008 Sushames et al. 2017 Townsend et al. 2016 Tumiel Behalter et al. 2011
1) Is there congruency between the stated philosophical perspective between the research and the methodology? Y Y Y Y
2) Is there congruity between the research methodology and the research question or objectives? Y S Y S
3) Is there congruity between the research methodology and the methods used to collect data? Y Y S S
4) Is there congruity between the research methodology and the representation and analysis of data? S Y N N
5) Is there congruity between the research methodology and the interpretation of results? Y Y Y S
6) Is there a statement locating the researcher culturally or theoretically? N N N N
7) Is the influence of the researcher on the research and vice versa addressed? N N N N
8) Are participants and their voices, adequately represented? S Y Y N
9) Is the research ethical according to current criteria or, for recent studies, is there evidence of ethical approval by an appropriate body? S S S S
10) Do the conclusions drawn in the research report flow from the analysis or interpretation of the data? Y Y Y S
Total 13/20 14/20 12/20 7/20
  1. Y Yes, S Somewhat, N No, U Unclear, N/A Not applicable; Yes scored two, somewhat one; No and unclear are zero with not applicable removed from totals