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Table 1 Process of refining the framework

From: The FRAME: an expanded framework for reporting adaptations and modifications to evidence-based interventions

Steps Process/operationalization
1. Identify goal and scope Goals: Identify reasons for adaptation not presented in Baumann et al. [15]; determine other aspects of the modification or adaptation process that should be documented
2. Identify relevant literature Searched the literature for systematic reviews and adaptation frameworks (additional details about search terms and processes available from first author) employed a snowballing process to sample underlying source literature for review (SWS)
3. Identify information about adaptation that was not captured in the previous framework 1. Identify descriptions of the process and reasons for adaptation in the published literature
2. Compare to the existing framework
3. Extract novel (a) descriptions and categorizations of modifications and adaptations, (b) reasons for modification or adaptation, (c) recommendations for adaptation, (d) descriptions of the process of adaptations, and (e) discussions of limitations of the existing frameworks and adaptation literature (SWS)
4. Added novel descriptions and information to a spreadsheet, employing a stop rule (e.g., when no additional information is extracted in the subsequent 10 articles)
5. Rapid coding of 55 interviews Reviewed memos and notes generated by two trained research assistants who applied the 2017 framework to questions about the adaptation process. Extracted summaries about aspects of adaptation not included in the framework and added to a spreadsheet (SWS)
6. Check extraction results for completeness Reviewed a subset of articles and interview responses to ensure that extraction was complete (CM, AB), arrived at consensus using a stop rule (e.g., when no additional information is extracted in the subsequent 10 articles)
7. Classify resulting items to create a complete list of possible reasons for adaptation and specify other aspects of the adaptation process to be documented Reviewed the items extracted from the literature and from interviews to categorize reasons for adaptation. Compare the information from the two data sources and finalize broad categories. Collapse and organize similar subcategories (SWS, AB, CM; by consensus).
8. Integrate stakeholder feedback Presented the revised framework, along with the rationale and methodology, to three different groups of stakeholders (implementation researchers, implementation project leaders, practitioners, and intervention developers) at seven different meetings with an explicit request for feedback. Suggestions regarding additions, refinements, and clarifications were recorded, discussed, and added to the framework by team consensus (SWS, AB, CM)
9. Piloted framework Coded articles with a predetermined stop rule (planned stop when no additional information that was not covered in FRAME was identified after 10 articles). Ten articles were coded with no new information identified