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Table 5 ImpRes guide features, rationale for inclusion and feature examples

From: Designing high-quality implementation research: development, application, feasibility and preliminary evaluation of the implementation science research development (ImpRes) tool and guide

ImpRes guide features Rationale for inclusion Feature examples
Jargon buster Implementation science has been described as a ‘tower of babel’ [70]. To address this issue, a ‘jargon buster’, providing widely accepted definitions of commonly used terms in implementation science is included in the ImpRes guide. It is hoped that this feature will further promote attempts, and the need, to bring consistency to terminology used in the field. ImpRes domain: Implementation outcomes
Implementation outcomes have been defined as ‘the effects of deliberate and purposive actions to implement new treatments, practices, and services and are distinct from service and client (patient) outcomes’ Proctor et al., 2011 [34].
ImpRes component: Implementation Strategies
Implementation strategies are ‘methods or techniques used to enhance the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of a clinical programme, practice or intervention’ Proctor et al., 2013 [31].
Top tips Implementation science has been described as a growing but not well understood field of health research [71]. To help address this challenge, a ‘top tips’ feature exists to help researchers design high-quality implementation research. Whilst these ‘tips’ are embedded within the literature, it is hoped that the ‘top tips’ feature will ensure that existing design recommendations will be brought to the forefront of researchers’ minds when designing implementation research. ImpRes domain: Implementation theories, framework and models
Depending on the nature and aim(s) of your implementation research, it might be appropriate to use more than one theory, framework or model. For example, if your research aims to identify barriers to implementation as well as evaluating implementation, selecting an implementation determinant framework as well as an implementation evaluation framework would be appropriate.
Keep an eye out Implementation science is a rapidly advancing field with much work currently being conducted to address lack of design guidance. The ‘keep an eye out’ feature signposts researchers’ to research that is currently being conducted that is not yet completed/published. ImpRes domain: Implementation strategies
A team of implementation scientists are currently developing the Implementation Technique Selection tool to ‘guide the selection of individual strategies that can be bundled or packaged together into an overall implementation strategy’. For more information, click here: [72]
Useful references Many peer-review publications exist that have the potential to increase knowledge and understanding and guide methodological decisions in implementation research. It is hoped this feature will signpost researchers to key peer-reviewed publications that can be used to guide the design of implementation research. ImpRes domain: Implementation theories, framework and models
Tabak et al. Bridging research and practice: models for dissemination and implementation research. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43:337–350 [44].
Nilsen P. Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks. Imp Sci. 2015;10:53 [43].
Useful resources In addition to peer-reviewed publications, many online resources exist that have the potential to increase knowledge and understanding and facilitate the design of implementation research. The ‘useful resources’ feature signposts researchers to blogs, webinars and websites. ImpRes domain: Implementation theories, frameworks and models
Website: Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) website ( [45].
ImpRes domain: Implementation outcomes
Webinar: Advanced Topics for Implementation Science Research: Measure Development and Evaluation. ( [58].
Link between ImpRes domains Although presented separately, the ten ImpRes domains should be viewed as interlinked and overlapping rather than discrete. Here, we make these interlinks explicit. ImpRes domains: Service and Patient Outcomes
Stakeholder Involvement and Engagement: Selecting service and/or patient outcomes to assess and measure should be informed by involving stakeholders. Measuring and assessing outcomes important to stakeholders can have a significant impact on adoption, implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.