Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Clinical performance comparators in audit and feedback: a review of theory and evidence

Characteristic Randomised controlled trials (n = 146); n (%) Qualitative studies (n = 65); n (%)
Publication date
 2012–2016 2 (1) 42 (65)
 2006–2011 36 (25) 15 (23)
 1996–2005 76 (52) 8 (12)
 1986–1995 20 (14)
 Before 1986 12 (8)
Risk of bias
 Low risk 47 (32) 9 (14)
 Moderate/unclear 73 (50) 47 (72)
 High 26 (18) 9 (14)
Continent
 North America 82 (56) 22 (34)
 Europe 46 (32) 37 (57)
 Australia 11 (8) 2 (3)
 Africa 2 (1) 2 (3)
 Asia 4 (2) 0 (0)
 South America 0 (0) 2 (3)
Clinical setting
 Outpatient 99 (68) 31 (48)
 Inpatient 37 (25) 30 (46)
 Other/unclear 10 (7) 4 (7)
Clinical topic
 Diabetes/cardiovascular disease management 32 (22) 20 (31)
 Laboratory testing/radiology 21 (14) 0 (0)
 Prescribing 33 (23) 11 (17)
 Other (e.g. preventive care, nursing, surgery) 52 (36) 34 (52)