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Table 2 Popular theories to model clinical performance feedback in the literature [5]

From: Clinical Performance Feedback Intervention Theory (CP-FIT): a new theory for designing, implementing, and evaluating feedback in health care based on a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research

Theory name and description Covers the entire feedback process Includes important factors in health care quality improvement
Selecting clinical topics Collecting and analysing data Producing and delivering feedback Making changes to clinical practice Team-based change [5] Context [123] Intervention implementation [17]
Control Theory [14]
 Proposes that behaviour is regulated by a negative feedback loop, in which a person’s perception of their current state is compared against a goal. People strive to reduce perceived discrepancies between the two by modifying their behaviour. No No No No No No No
Goal Setting Theory [15]
 Explains how goals (defined as the object or aim of an action) affect task performance and how performance can be influenced by factors including commitment, goal importance, self-efficacy, feedback, and task complexity. Yes No No No No No No
Feedback Intervention Theory [16]
 Describes how feedback can influence behaviour and describes factors that determine whether feedback has a positive or negative influence on performance. Factors include feedback intervention cues; task characteristics; and situational variables (including personality). Feedback Intervention Theory draws upon ideas in both Control Theory and Goal Setting Theory. Somewhat No Yes No No No No