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Table 10 Tentative best practices for feedback interventions compared to CP-FIT

From: Clinical Performance Feedback Intervention Theory (CP-FIT): a new theory for designing, implementing, and evaluating feedback in health care based on a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research

Brehaut et al. [11] Ivers et al. [5] CP-FIT variables
Address credibility of the information. Data are valid Accuracy
Source—knowledge and skill
Delivery comes from a trusted source Source—knowledge and skill
Provide feedback as soon as possible and at a frequency informed by the number of new patient cases Data are based on recent performance Timeliness
Provide individual rather than general data. Data are about the individual/team’s own behaviour(s) Specificity
Provide multiple instances of feedback. Audit cycles are repeated, with new data presented over time Multiple instances of feedback are inherent to the feedback cycle (Fig. 3).
Provide feedback in more than 1 way. Presentation is multi-modal including either text and talking or text and graphical materials Active delivery
Choose comparators that reinforce desired behaviour change The target performance is provided Benchmarking
Feedback includes comparison data with relevant others
Recommend actions that can improve and are under the recipient’s control. Targeted behaviour is likely to be amenable to feedback Controllability
Performance level
Recipients are capable and responsible for improvement
Recommend actions that are consistent with established goals and priorities Goals set for the target behaviour are aligned with personal and organisational priorities Importance
Workflow alignment
Recommend specific actions Goals for target behaviour are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound Action planning
Problem solving
Peer discussion
A clear action plan is provided when discrepancies are evident
Closely link the visual display and summary message N/A Usability
Minimise extraneous cognitive load for feed- back recipients. N/A Prioritisation
Provide short, actionable messages followed by optional detail. N/A Patient lists
Address barriers to feedback use. N/A CP-FIT in its entirety can be used to address barriers
Prevent defensive reactions to feedback. N/A Function
Construct feedback through social interaction. N/A Peer discussion