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Table 2 Characteristics of hospitals and patients participating in the CIN audit and feedback intervention trial

From: Effect of enhancing audit and feedback on uptake of childhood pneumonia treatment policy in hospitals that are part of a clinical network: a cluster randomized trial

Characteristics Enhanced feedback Standard feedback Total
Cluster level
 No. of hospitals, n/N 6/6 6/6 12/12
 No. of hospitals with > 1 pediatrician*, n/N 2/6 1/6 3/12
 No. of hospitals in malaria-endemic regions, n/N 3/6 2/6 5/12
 No. of hospitals with > 40 pediatric beds, n/N 2/6 2/6 4/12
Individual level
 Pneumonia admissions 1087 1212 2299
 Median age in months, (IQR) 12 (7–17) 14 (8–18) 13 (8–24)
 Males, n/N (%) 604/1086 (55.6%) 661/1200 (55.1%) 1265/2286 (55.3%)
 Duration of illness in days, median (IQR) 3 (2–5) 3 (2–5) 3 (2–5)
 Referred to hospital, n/N (%) 101/860 (11.7%) 179/724 (17.4%) 280/1884 (14.9%)
 Clinical findings during admission documented using a structured admission record form**, n/N (%) 1069/1083 (98.7%) 1199/1211 (99%) 2268/2294 (98.9%)
 Wheezing present during admission, n/N (%) 83/1084 (7.7%) 112/1203 (9.3%) 195/2287(8.5%)
 Comorbid diagnosis present at admission***, n/N (%) 692/1027 (63.7%) 827/1212 (68.2%) 1519/2299(66.1%)
 Mid-upper-arm-circumference, median (IQR) 14 (13–15) 14 (13–15) 14(13–15)
 Length of hospital stay, median (IQR) 2 (1–5) 3 (2–6) 3 (1–5)
 Died, n/N (%) 22/1087 (2.0%) 37/1212 (3.1%) 59/2299 (2.6%)
  1. *All remaining hospitals had a single pediatrician
  2. **Structured admission forms were introduced within network hospitals to improve quality of documentation of features of illness, investigations and management
  3. ***Any comorbid illness not excluded in trial exclusion criteria, e.g., dehydration