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Table 5 Examples of quantitative measures of EPIS factors used in published studies

From: Systematic review of the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework

  Sample of EPIS factors Example quantitative measures
Outer context Service environment Sustainability assessment tool
Policies EBP-specific document review (i.e., speeches, regulations, annual reports; documented system-wide policy)
Funding/contracting
Leadership Leadership Competence Scale of Program Sustainability Index [63]
Inter-organizational environment and networks
Patient/client characteristics* Demographics, Administrative Claims Data
Patient/client advocacy*
Innovation factors* Innovation/EBP developers
Innovation/EBP characteristics
Innovation/EBP fit*
Bridging factors* Community-academic partnerships*
Purveyors/intermediaries
Inner context Organizational characteristics Group Innovation Inventory [64]; Implementation Climate Scale [65]; Level of Institutional Scale [66]; Organizational Climate Measure [67]; Organizational Culture and Climate via Children’s Services Survey [68]; Organizational Readiness for Change [69]; Organizational Social Context Survey [70]; Organizational Size; Program Sustainability Index [71]; Siegel Scale of Support of Innovation [72]
Culture Organizational Culture and Climate via Children’s Services Survey [68]; Organizational Social Context Survey [70]
Climate Implementation Climate Assessment [66]; Implementation Climate Scale [65, 72]; Organizational Climate Measure [67]; Organizational Social Context Survey [64]; Time Climate Inventory [73]
Readiness for change Organizational Readiness for Change [69]; Readiness for Organizational Change [74]
Leadership Implementation Leadership Scale [75]; Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire [76]
Quality and fidelity monitoring/support* Adherence and Skill Checklist [77]; Assessment of Climate Embedding Mechanisms [18]; Examination of Common Dimensions of EBI(s); performance-based role-plays [78]; Therapist Procedures Checklist-Revised [79]; Therapist Procedures Observational Coding System [80]
Supportive coaching Coaching records
Organizational staffing processes Data regarding turnover rates and reasons
Individual characteristics Demographics; Emotional Competency Inventory [81]; Evidenced-Based Practice Attitudes Scale [82]; Knowledge of Evidenced-Based Services Questionnaire [83]; organizational readiness for change [69]
Attitudes towards EBPs Evidence-Based Practice Attitudes Scale [82]; Perceived Characteristics of Intervention Scale; Barriers to Research Practice Scale [84]
Implementation citizenship* Implementation Citizenship Behavior Scale [61]
Burnout* Maslach Burnout Inventory [85]
  1. *Represents factors that are new and not defined in original EPIS 2011 paper
  2. Examples are only provided for those factors that were measured in the review—indicates that there were no quantitative measures in the included articles of this review