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Table 6 Effects of the intervention on patient outcomes

From: Evaluation of a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention designed to increase uptake of emergency management recommendations regarding adult patients with mild traumatic brain injury: results of the NET cluster randomised trial

Patient interview responses   NET-Plus control NET-Plus intervention    
Value range No. of patients/clusters Mean (SD)/N (%) No. of patients/clusters Mean (SD)/N (%) Adjusted effect^ 95%CI p value
Anxiety1 0 to 21 218/14 4.3 (4.01) 125/10 3.4 (3.58) MD − 0.52^^ (− 1.34, 0.30) 0.216
Post-concussion symptoms (RPQ-13)2 0 to 52 218/14 6.7 (8.65) 125/10 4.7 (5.52) MD − 1.15^^ (−2.77, 0.48) 0.167
Post-concussion symptoms (RPQ-3)3 0 to 12 218/14 1.16 (1.83) 125/10 0.90 (1.44) MD − 1.10^^ (−0.48, 0.28) 0.611
Not returned to normal activities4 0 or 1 218/14 41 (19%) 126/10 16 (13%) OR 0.67^^^ (0.28, 1.61) 0.368
SF6D HRQoL5 0.35 to 1 208/14 0.78 (0.14) 123/10 0.80 (0.13) MD 0.03^^ (0.00, 0.06) 0.053
mTBI-related re-presentation6 0 or 1 1050/17 25 (2.4%) 893/14 39 (4.4%) OR 1.92^^^^ (1.08, 3.40) 0.026
  1. 1Anxiety measured using the anxiety items in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale giving a score between 0 and 21, higher scores indicate higher levels of anxiety and a score > 7 indicates clinically significant anxiety
  2. 2Post-concussion symptoms measured using the 13-item Rivermead scale (RPQ-13) giving a score between 0 and 52, higher scores indicate greater severity of post-concussion symptoms
  3. 3Post-concussion symptoms measured using the 3-item Rivermead scale (RPQ-3) giving a score between 0 and 12, higher scores indicate greater severity of post-concussion symptoms
  4. 4Whether or not a patient returned to normal activities was indicated by the patient answering no to any of the following: “Are you doing the same working hours as before the incident?” “Are you studying the same hours as before the incident?” “Are you back to (your) other normal activities such as gardening, buying groceries, visiting friends or family, or other leisure activities etc.?”
  5. 5SF6D index scores, derived from SF12v2 raw data using weights from Brazier and Roberts [76]
  6. 6Chart audit data
  7. ^Adjusted effects from models fitted using generalised estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure (unless otherwise noted) and robust variance estimation to allow for clustering within hospitals. Models adjusted for the design strata and pre-specified confounders (see ‘Effectiveness analyses’ section). Adjusted effects are adjusted mean differences (denoted MD) or adjusted odds ratios (denoted OR)
  8. ^^Modelled with independent within-group correlation structure. See ‘Effectiveness analyses’ section for details
  9. ^^^Adjusted ARD − 4.6% (95%CI − 16.2%, 7.0%)
  10. ^^^^Adjusted ARD 2.1% (95%CI 0.3%, 3.8%)