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Table 3 Summary of adaptation characteristics reported in peer-reviewed literature (EBIs), k = 42

From: A systematic review of adaptations of evidence-based public health interventions globally

Adaptation characteristics Studies reporting characteristic
k (%)
Type of modification
 Content 42 (100%)
  Tailoring 39 (92.9%)
  Adding elements 30 (71.4%)
  Shortening 13 (31.0%)
  Removing elements 12 (28.6%)
  Loosening structure 10 (23.8%)
  Lengthening 9 (21.4%)
  Substitution 7 (16.7%)
  Integrating other approach 5 (11.9%)
  Reorder elements 4 (9.5%)
  Integrating intervention 2 (4.8%)
  Departing 2 (4.8%)
  Repeating elements 1 (2.4%)
 Cultural modification 31 (73.8%)
  Context 40 (95.2%)
   Population 33 (78.6%)
   Setting 29 (69.0%)
   Other 3 (7.1%)
  Delivery 26 (61.9%)
   Deliverer 16 (38.1%)
   Mode/medium 14 (33.3%)
   Other 4 (9.5%)
  Training 16 (38.1%)
  Evaluation 19 (45.2%)
  Change to core elements 4 (9.5%)
Reasons for adaptation
  Cultural appropriateness 27 (64.3%)
  Focus on new target population 25 (59.5%)
  Implement in new community setting 24 (57.1%)
  Improve ease and feasibility of implementation 6 (14.3%)
  Make program more widely accessible 1 (2.4%)
  Condense program 1 (2.4%)
Outcomes
 Implementation
  Acceptability 28 (66.7%)
  Fidelity 22 (52.4%)
  Feasibility 22 (52.4%)
  Adoption 20 (47.6%)
  Sustainability 11 (26.2%)
  Other 5 (11.9%)
 Behavioral/program
  Behavior 30 (71.4%)
  Practice 9 (21.4%)
  Knowledge 7 (16.7%)
  Self-efficacy 5 (11.9%)
  Environment 4 (9.5%)
  Well-being/health 3 (7.1%)
  Attitudes 3 (7.1%)
  Skills 3 (7.1%)
  Communication 2 (4.8%)
  Policy 0
  Other 4 (9.5%)
 Individual satisfaction 11 (26.2%)