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Table 2 Characteristics of included reports, reasons for adaptation, and frameworks

From: A systematic review of adaptations of evidence-based public health interventions globally

First author, year Original EBI name (adapted EBI name) study design EBI disease/topic Reason for adaptation Target population/setting Adaptation framework (if mentioned)
Original (author) Adapted
Reijneveld, 2003 [53] Healthy & Vital (no change)
Experimental—RCT
Physical inactivity/poor physical and mental well-being Cultural appropriateness
New population
People aged ≥ 65 in welfare services in the Netherlands Turkish immigrants aged ≥ 45 in welfare services in the Netherlands N/R
Komro, 2004 [54] Project Northland (Project Northland Chicago)
Experimental—RCT
Alcohol use Cultural appropriateness
New population
New community
Mostly white, 6th–8th grade students in rural NE Minnesota, USA Culturally diverse 6th–8th grade students in Chicago, IL, USA N/R
Sarkisian, 2005 [55] Empowerment: Facilitating a Path to Personal Self-Care (N/R)
Non-experimental
Diabetes Cultural appropriateness
New population
Younger, mostly Caucasian patients with diabetes in the USA African Americans and Latinos aged ≥ 55 with diabetes in public health diabetes and geriatrics clinics and senior centers in South Los Angeles, CA, USA N/R
Tsey, 2005 [56] Family Wellbeing (no change)
Non-experimental
Teasing, bullying, fighting, low self-esteem, truancy New population
New community
Adults in Aboriginal Australia (Tsey [57]) Students in 2 primary schools in remote indigenous communities in Cape York Peninsula, far north Queensland, Australia N/R
Villarruel, 2005 [58] Be Proud! Be Responsible! (¡Cuídate!)
Experimental—RCT
HIV Cultural appropriateness
New population
African American adolescents aged 13–18 from community-based agencies in Philadelphia, USA Inner-city Latino adolescents aged 10–19 in Philadelphia, PA, USA N/R
Belanksy, 2006 [59] Integrated
Nutrition Education Program, INP
(Integrated Nutrition and Physical Activity Program, INPAP)
Non-experimental
Nutrition and physical activity Cultural appropriateness
New community
Elementary school children in a school setting in Denver, USA 2nd and 3rd grade students in a rural, biethnic, low-income county in south-central Colorado, USA N/R
Hitt, 2006 [60] Project RESPECT
(N/R)
Non-experimental
HIV/STD New population
New community
Heterosexual individuals aged ≥ 14 attending 5 public STD clinics in the USA (Kamb [61]) MSM, IDU, and heterosexual individuals attending either a local health department or a CBO for prevention counseling services in Texas, USA N/R
Somerville, 2006 [62] Popular Opinion Leader, POL (Young Latino Promotores, YLP)
Non-experimental
HIV Cultural appropriateness
New population
White gay men in gay venues frequented predominantly by whites in midsized southern cities in the USA Latino migrant MSM aged 18–30 in Texas and California USA-Mexico border communities N/R
NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial Group, 2007 [38] Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) (no change)
Experimental—RCT
HIV/STD Cultural appropriateness
New community
Populations vulnerable to HIV risk behavior in the USA Individuals aged 18–49 at food markets with individually owned stalls in Fuzhou, China and individuals aged 18–30 in the following settings; wine shops in slums in Chennai, India; gathering points of young, high-risk people in barrios in Lima, Chiclayo, and Trujillo, Peru; trade school dorms in St. Petersburg, Russia; and retail establishments in rural Zimbabwe N/R
Tsarouk, 2007 [63] Reconnecting Youth (RY) (no change)
Non-experimental
Substance abuse and HIV transmission Cultural appropriateness High-risk students aged 14–18 in the USA Russian adolescents aged 14–17 with poor school performance and mild behavioral problems in schools in Moscow, Russia N/R
Beattie, 2008 [64] Swim and Survive, and Infant Aquatics (Water Safety in the Bush)
Non-experimental
Water safety/drowning Cultural appropriateness
New community
Infants, children 5–14 years, and parents in Australia Children and adults in rural and remote Australian communities N/R
Cornelius, 2008 [28] Sisters Informing Sisters on Topics about AIDS, SISTA (Women Informing Women on Topics about AIDS, WIWTA)
Non-experimental
HIV/AIDS New population
New community
Young African American girls in heterosexual relationships in San Francisco, USA (DiClemente [65]) African American women ≥ 50 in heterosexual relationships who frequent churches located in low-income areas of North Carolina, USA N/R
Gitlin, 2008 [30] Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, CDSMP (Harvest Health, HH) Chronic disease self-management New population
New community
Middle-class white patients aged ≥ 40 in community-based sites in the USA (Lorig [66]) African Americans aged ≥ 60 with chronic condition(s) in a senior setting in Philadelphia, PA, USA N/R
Lerdboon, 2008 [67] Vietnamese Focus on Kids (Exploring the World of Adolescents, EWA)
Non-experimental
HIV/AIDS Cultural appropriateness
New community
Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam Adolescents aged 15–21 in both rural and urban Vietnam N/R
Steiker, 2008 [29] Keepin’ It REAL (Refuse, Explain, Avoid, and Leave)
(N/R)
Quasi-experimental
Substance abuse prevention Cultural appropriateness
New population
New community
Middle school youth in the USA Adolescents aged 14–19 in high risk, unique community settings in Texas, USA Castro - cultural adaptation
Burgio, 2009 [68] Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health, REACH II
(REACH OUT, Offering Useful Treatments)
Non-experimental
Alzheimer’s disease Implementation ease/feasibility In-home Alzheimer’s caregivers in USA cities Alzheimer’s caregivers in Area Agencies on Aging in Alabama, USA N/R
Fiscian, 2009 [69] Making Proud Choices
(N/R)
Non-experimental
HIV/AIDS Cultural appropriateness
New population
New community
Minority adolescents in the USA Adolescent girls aged 10–14 in a church-affiliated junior secondary school in Ghana N/R
Mueller, 2009 [31] ¡Cuídate! (no change)
Non-experimental
HIV/AIDS New community Latino youth aged 13–18 in Northeast Philadelphia schools, USA Latino youth in a urban
high school in Denver, CO, USA
N/R
Pekmezi, 2009 [70] Individually tailored physical activity print intervention (Seamos Activas)
Experimental—RCT
Physical inactivity and related chronic illnesses Cultural appropriateness
New population
Sedentary adults in the USA Overweight/obese Latinas aged 18–65 with low income and acculturation in Providence, RI, USA N/R
Stevens, 2009 [71] REACH II (Support Teams for Caregivers)
Non-experimental
Alzheimer’s disease or dementia Implementation ease/feasibility Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia in 5 USA cities Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia in Texas, USA RE-AIM and REP
DePue, 2010 [72] Project Sugar 2, PS2 (Diabetes Care in American Samoa)
Experimental—RCT
Type 2 diabetes Cultural appropriateness
New population
Urban African Americans aged ≥ 25 with diabetes in Baltimore, USA Individuals aged ≥ 21 with type 2 diabetes in American Samoa Lau’s framework for cultural adaptation
Domenech Rodriguez, 2011 [73] Parent Management Training—Oregon Model, PMTO (Criando con Amor: Promoviendo Armonía y Superación, CAPAS)
Experimental—RCT
Parenting Cultural appropriateness
New population
Divorcing mothers with sons in 1st–3rd grades in a medium-sized city in the Pacific NW, USA (Forgatch [74]) Spanish-speaking Latino parents or relatives who co-parent in rural Utah, USA CAP and EVM
Poulsen, 2010; [39] Vandenhoub, 2010 [75] Parents Matter! (Families Matter!)
Non-experimental
HIV Cultural appropriateness
New community
African American parents of preteens aged 9–12 in a controlled clinical setting in the USA Families with children aged 9–12 in Asembo, rural west Kenya MAP
Sadler, 2010 [76] “Cancer Clinical Trials: The Basics” and “Conversemos un rato: Información para combatir el cáncer en su comunidad” (N/R)
Non-experimental
Breast cancer Cultural appropriateness
New population
Individuals with cancer in the USA African American/Hispanic American women, or women from diverse communities with breast cancer in California, USA N/R
Rotheram-Borus, 2011 [77] Project TALC (LA Project TALC in Los Angeles, Family to Family in Thailand, Mentor Mothers in South Africa)
Non-experimental
HIV Cultural appropriateness
New community
Parents living with HIV and their children or caregiver supports in New York City, USA Parents living with HIV and their children or caregiver supports in the USA (Los Angeles, CA), Thailand, and South Africa CQI
Cardona, 2009 [78] Parent Management Training—Oregon Model, PMTO
(N/R)
Non-experimental
Parenting/mental health Cultural appropriateness
New population
New community
Divorcing mothers with sons in 1st–3rd grades in a medium-sized city in the Pacific Northwest, USA (Forgatch [74]) Latino immigrant parents with children aged 6–12 with mild behavioral problems in Detroit, MI, USA EVM
Feinberg, 2012 [79] Problem-Solving Treatment (Problem-Solving Education)
Experimental—RCT
Depression New population Adults with depression in general practices in Oxford, United Kingdom (Gath [80]) Mothers with limited incomes and high rates of depression in 3 settings where they receive services in Massachusetts, USA Backer’s 6-step approach
Castro’s cultural adaptation
Parker, 2012; [81]
Chen, 2013 [82]
Arthritis Self-Help Program, ASHP
(no change)
Non-experimental
Arthritis Cultural appropriateness
New population
Condense program
Younger, mostly non-Hispanic white adults in the USA African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white older adults attending senior centers in New York City, NY, USA M-PACE
Reid, 2012 [83] Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) (no change)
Non-experimental
Substance abuse, sexual behavior, and HIV Cultural appropriateness
New community
Drug abusers HIV-positive substance abusers in recovery in Trinidad and Tobago N/R
Rosati, 2012 [84] Family Matters (Thai Family Matters)
Experimental—RCT
Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use Cultural appropriateness
New community
Parents and children in the USA Adolescents aged 13–14 and their parents in Bangkok, Thailand N/R
Tomioka, 2012 [85] Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, CDSMP
(Ke Ola Pono)
Non-experimental
Chronic disease self-management Cultural appropriateness
New population
Adults aged ≥ 40 with chronic diseases in community-based sites in California, USA (Lorig [66]) Asians and Pacific Islanders with chronic diseases in Hawaii, USA CDC’s adaptation traffic light
Danielson, 2013 [33] Sistas Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering, SiHLE
(SiHLEWeb)
Non-experimental
HIV/STD Cultural appropriateness
Implementation ease/feasibility
African American adolescents in community health agencies in the USA (DiClemente [65]) Community-dwelling traditionally underserved African American girls aged 13–18 in the Southeast USA N/R
Fasula, 2013 [86] Project Safe (Project POWER)
Non-experimental
HIV/STD New population
New community
African American and Mexican American
women in STD clinics in in San Antonio, USA (Shain [87])
HIV-negative women with sentences up to 14 months due to be released within 6 months in North Carolina women’s prison facilities, USA MAP
Parker, 2013a; [88]
Parker; 2013b [89]
Healthy Living Project (Supporting Youth and Motivating Positive Action, SYMPA)
Non-experimental
HIV/AIDS New population
New community
Adults living with HIV in the USA Youth aged 15–24 living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo ADAPT
Wainer, 2013 [90] Reciprocal imitation training (RIT)
(no change)
Non-experimental
ASD Implement in new community setting
Make program more widely accessible
Individuals working with children with ASD, including parents, in the USA Individuals working with children with ASD, including parents, in the participants’ homes and research lab in the Midwestern USA N/R
Williams, 2013 [91] Adherence Through Home Education and Nursing Assessment, ATHENA
(N/R)
Experimental—RCT
HIV/AIDS Cultural appropriateness
New population
New community
European, African and Hispanic individuals with a high prevalence of substance abuse and mental illness for whom ARV therapy was prescribed in the northeastern USA Patients living with HIV/AIDS receiving ARV therapy from the Hunan China CARES clinical program in rural south central China Castro’s cultural adaptation
Baydala, 2014 [92] Life Skills Training, LST (Nimi Icinohabi)
Quasi-experimental design
Substance abuse Cultural appropriateness
New population
Elementary, middle, and high school students, including ethnic minority youth in the USA Aboriginal school-age children in Central Alberta, Canada N/R
Broning, 2014 [93] Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 10–14, SFP 10–14 (Familien Stärken)
Experimental—RCT
Substance abuse Cultural appropriateness
New community
Adolescents aged 10–14 and their caregivers in rural economically deprived regions in Iowa, USA Adolescents aged 10–14 and their caregivers in socially deprived urban districts in Hamburg, Schwerin, Hanover and Munich, Germany N/R
Cariou, 2014 [94] Pool Cool
(no change)
Non-experimental
Skin cancer New population
Implementation ease/feasibility
Aquatics instructors, kids aged 5–10, parents and other pool users in Hawaii and Massachusetts, USA (Glanz [95]) Children and adolescents aged 2–17 enrolled in swim lessons at the Payette Municipal Pool, rural Idaho, USA N/R
Reback, 2014 [96] Gay-specific cognitive behavioral therapy, GCBT (Getting Off: A Behavioral Treatment Intervention for Gay and Bisexual Male Methamphetamine Users)
Experimental - RCT
Methamphetamine use/HIV New community Methamphetamine-using gay and bisexual men in a controlled clinical setting in the USA Methamphetamine-using MSM in a community-based HIV prevention setting in Los Angeles, CA, USA N/R
Riggs, 2014 [32] Family Overweight: Comparing Use of Strategies, FOCUS (Family Wellness Program, FWP)
Non-experimental
Pediatric obesity Implementation ease/feasibility
New community
Obese children and their parents in the USA (Saelens [97]) Obese children aged 6–12 and their parents in primary care clinics near Seattle, WA, USA N/R
Tu, 2014 [98] Clinic-based educational program to promote CRC screening among Chinese immigrants (N/R)
Quasi-experimental
Colorectal cancer screening New population
Implementation ease/feasibility
Chinese immigrant in a community health center in the metropolitan area of Seattle, USA (Tu [99]) Vietnamese patients of community health centers in the metropolitan area of Seattle, WA, USA Diffusion of innovations theory
  1. N/R not reported, ASD autism spectrum disorder, ARV antiretroviral, CAP cultural adaptation process, CBO community-based organization, CQI continuous quality improvement, EVM ecological validity model, IDU injection drug user, M-PACE Method for Planned Adaptation through Community Engagement, MAP Map of Adaptation Process, MSM men who have sex with men, RE-AIM Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance, REP Replicating Effective Programs, STD sexually transmitted disease