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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of community pharmacies participating in NC-CPESN

From: Testing the organizational theory of innovation implementation effectiveness in a community pharmacy medication management program: a hurdle regression analysis

Characteristics Implementers (n = 113)
Mean (SD) or %
Non-implementers (n = 78)
Mean (SD) or %
Total (n = 191)
Mean (SD) or %
Range
Key independent variables
 Implementation climate 11.81 (3.0252) 3.55 (3.064)*** 8.37 (5.087) 0–16
 Innovation-values fit 13.55 (2.0218) 11.06 (3.99)*** 12.51 (3.231) 0–16
Patient needs and resources
 Rural location 57.78 42.22 23.56 0–1
 Clinical factors 31.94 (29.78) 39.63 (29.40) 35.08 (29.8) 1–100
 Social factors 44.07 (30.8) 46.36 (33.17) 45.01 (31.8) 1–100
 340B participation 69.12 30.88* 36.76 0–1
 Proportion of high-risk patients 0.42 (0.14) 0.36 (0.18)** 0.40 (0.16) 0–0.87
Available resources
 Presence of a clinical pharmacist 86.49 13.51*** 19.37 0–1
 Total number of staff 12.83 (6.464) 11.53 (8.827) 12.30 (7.525) 1–40
 Presence of pharmacy student or resident 92.86 7.14*** 21.99 0–1
Access to knowledge about the intervention
 Amount of experience with NC-CPESN (months) 34.37 (7.0546) 27.05 (7.96)*** 31.38 (8.249) 12.1–44.7
 Past performance with NC-CPESN 0.03 (0.04) 0.00 (0.00)** 0.02 (0.0) 0–0.31
 Participation in Medicare Part D MTM 67.27 32.73*** 86.39 0–1
Structural characteristics
 Independent pharmacy 57.83 42.17 43.46 0–1
 Low prescription volume 56.06 43.94 34.55 0–1
 Established pharmacy 45.13 30.77 39.27 0–1
  1. Significance of t tests or Pearson’s chi-square tests comparing implementers to non-implementers: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001