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Table 6 Bamford et al. [20] retrospectively map inductively generated themes onto NPT constructs. (Reproduced from BMC Health Services Research, published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) licence)

From: Using Normalization Process Theory in feasibility studies and process evaluations of complex healthcare interventions: a systematic review

Mapping of overarching themes and subthemes to NPT framework
NPT construct Theme Subthemes
Coherence Making sense of the case manager intervention Perceived value of the concept of case management.
Clarity over the case manager role.
Cognitive participation Investment in case management Practice investment in case management.
Investment by case managers.
Fit of case management with existing skill sets.
Collective action Implementing case management in practice Time available for case management.
Implementation in research vs clinical practice.
Support and supervision of case managers.
Reflexive monitoring Appraising and embedding of case management Assessing the impacts of case management.
The ‘right’ intervention but at the wrong time.
Embedding case management in practice.