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Table 1 Specifications of the six components of the implementation program for SDM, as suggested by Proctor [80]

From: Evaluation of a program for routine implementation of shared decision-making in cancer care: study protocol of a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial

  SDM training for HCPs Individual coaching for physicians Patient activation strategy Provision of patient information material and decision aids Revision of the clinic’s quality management documents Critical reflection of current organization of MDTMs
Actor(s) Trained HCPs of respective clinic (trained by research team in a train-the-trainer workshop), research team Research team Clinic staff and research team Clinic staff and research team Research team, quality management department and head HCPs of each clinic Clinical staff and research team
Action(s) SDM training for physicians and nurses Participant observation of physician-patient interaction and provision of feedback Dissemination of material encouraging patients to ask questions regarding treatment options Dissemination and use of information material and decision aids Inclusion of SDM in quality management documents Meetings with respective head of clinics and members of the clinical teams responsible for the MDTMs
Target(s) of action HCPs working at respective clinic HCPs working at respective clinic Patients being treated in respective clinic Patients being treated in respective clinic All staff working at respective clinic All patient cases discussed in MDTMs
CFIR domain Individual level and inner setting* Individual level Individual level Individual level Inner setting* Inner setting*
Temporality Beginning of implementation phase in respective clinic First coaching should be within 4 weeks after training Throughout implementation phase in respective clinic with start at beginning of phase Throughout implementation phase in respective clinic with start after HCP training Beginning of implementation phase in respective clinic Throughout implementation phase in respective clinic
Dose 2 h training Two audits with oral and written feedback per HCP Initial setup of material in different clinic areas, need-based restocking Initial setup of material in different clinic areas, need-based re-stocking Short oral presentation of new documents in team meetings, combined with email to staff members Two to three meetings of approx. 60 min per clinic
Justification [23, 25, 55, 56, 81] and pilot study [17, 18, 45] [57] and pilot study [17, 18, 45] [37, 58] and pilot study [17, 18, 45] [82] and pilot study [17, 18, 45] Pilot study [17, 18, 45] Pilot study [43, 44]
  1. *Inner setting = cluster level