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Table 2 Unadjusted association between composite scores and facility implementation status (more vs. less successful implementation)

From: Factors associated with the use of cognitive aids in operating room crises: a cross-sectional study of US hospitals and ambulatory surgical centers

   More successful implementation
Variable Total N N % MH p value
Number of patient safety/quality improvement initiatives     0.0049*
 1 53 29 54.7  
 2 59 32 54.2  
 3 89 59 66.3  
 4 79 60 76.0  
 5 78 55 70.5  
 Missing 10 6 60.0  
Number of cognitive aid implementation steps completed     < 0.0001*
 0 39 10 25.6  
 1 52 19 36.5  
 2 67 41 61.2  
 3 60 42 70.0  
 4 45 38 84.4  
 5 35 27 77.1  
 6 42 39 92.9  
 7 15 13 86.7  
 8 13 12 92.3  
 Missing 0 0 0.0  
Number of other ways in which tool is used§     < 0.0001*
 0 73 39 53.4  
 1 146 87 59.6  
 2 91 68 74.7  
 3 42 36 85.7  
 4 12 11 91.7  
 Missing 4 0 0.0  
  1. *Significant at alpha = 0.05
  2. The QI initiatives score was calculated by summing the following yes/no questions: (1) WHO Safe Surgery Checklist, (2) simulation training, (3) communication and teamwork training, (4) protocols for handoffs, and (5) emergency drills
  3. The implementation step score was calculated by summing the following yes/no questions: (1) Has the tool been presented at staff, physician, or departmental meetings, (2) Has your facility established a multidisciplinary team to review the tool, (3) Did you customize the tool to your facility’s local context, (4) Did your facility pilot test the tool, (5) Has your facility trained people working in the use of the tool, (6) Does your facility provide ongoing/routine training on the effective use of this tool, (7) Does your facility monitor the use of the tool, and (8) Has your facility expanded the use of the tool to other areas in the hospital where anesthesia is being administered
  4. §The number of ways in which tool is used score was calculated by summing the following yes/no questions: (1) emergency drills in the OR or simulation center, (2) to prepare for a complex case, (3) to debrief after a critical event, and (4) educational review