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Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Hospital-based interventions: a systematic review of staff-reported barriers and facilitators to implementation processes

 1. Types of studies Quantitative or qualitative original studies published in full including:
 - Interviews/focus groups
 - Surveys/questionnaires
Exclusions: Review papers, editorials, commentary/discussion papers, papers published in languages other than English, conference posters or oral presentations not available in full text, book chapters.
 2. Study settings Hospital settings including:
 - Inpatient
 - Outpatient hospital settings where implementation is based in the hospital context
 - Mixed context studies where at least one setting is hospital-based (and data is reported for staff in that setting)
Exclusions: community-based, population-based, school-based, prison-based, outreach studies, nursing homes.
 3. Population Hospital staff of any type including:
 - Health care providers (doctors, nurses, allied health professionals), IT, managers, administrators
Exclusions: no staff who were working in the hospital at the time of implementation were excluded. Any papers that collected data from staff who were not hospital-based were excluded based on criterion 2, study setting. For example, studies based in community health settings with community health workers were excluded based on setting. However, if a hospital study involved both clinical and community staff in a hospital-based implementation, all staff involved in the implementation were included.
 4. Interventions The intervention focused on direct patient care outcomes including:
 - Direct patient interventions such as therapy or behavioral change interventions
 - Interventions with direct patient benefit, e.g., hygienic interventions, staff behavioral or communication based interventions designed to improve patient outcomes
Exclusions: medical record management or IT interventions, interventions focused on administration outcomes, e.g., rostering change interventions.
 5. Formal collection of data about implementation processes The study contains formal, objectively collected data (quantitative or qualitative) from staff on barriers and facilitators to implementation (at any stage: pre, post, or during the process) including:
 - Interviews/focus groups with staff participants where questions specifically asked about the implementation
 - Surveys/questionnaires with staff participants on barriers to the implementation
Exclusions: any papers that did not directly assess the implementation process, as well as any studies that did not provide any formal data (as specified above) from staff participants about the implementation process. Therefore all studies that assessed the intervention only were excluded, as well as studies which provided only descriptive or anecdotal information about the implementation.