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Table 1 Treatment and comparison states

From: Protocol: mixed-methods study to evaluate implementation, enforcement, and outcomes of U.S. state laws intended to curb high-risk opioid prescribing

Treatment state, effective date Study period Eligible comparison states (“control pool”)
See footnotes for opioid prescribing legal environment criteria used to select control pool states
Mandatory PDMP enrollment law
 CO, 1/1/15 1/1/13–12/31/16 IA, KS, MI, MT, NE, ND, OR, SC, SD, WY1
 ID, 7/1/14 7/1/12–6/30/16 CA, IA, KS, MI, MN, MT, NE, ND, OR, SC, SD, WY1
 IL, 9/9/15 9/9/13–8/8/17 IA, KS, MI, MT, NE, ND, OR, SC, SD, WY1
 NM, 1/1/11 1/1/09–12/31/12 AL, CO, CT, ID, IN, IA, MA, MI, MN, NV, NY, ND, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, WY1
 UT, 9/30/10 9/30/08–9/29/12 AL, CO, ID, IL, IN, MA, MI, MN, NV, NY, OK, PA, RI, SC, VA, WV, WY1
Mandatory PDMP query law
 IN, 11/1/14 11/1/12–10/31/16 CA, IA, KS, MI, MN, MT, NE, ND, OR, SC, SD, WY1
 NY, 8/27/13 8/27/11–8/26/15 CA, CO, IA, KS, MI, MN, NV, NJ, ND, OR, RI, SC, SD, WY1
 OK, 11/1/15 11/1/13–10/31/17 IA, KS, MI, MT, NE, ND, OR, SC, SD, WY1
 PA, 6/30/15 6/30/13–6/29/17 IA, KS, MI, MT, NE, ND, OR, SC, SD, WY1
 VA, 7/1/15 7/1/13–6/30/17 IA, KS, MI, MT, NE, ND, OR, SC, SD, WY1
Prescribing cap law
 CT, 7/1/16 7/1/15–6/30/18 IN, NH, NJ, PA, VA, VT3,4
 NH, 7/1/18 7/1/16–6/31/20 IN, NJ, OK, PA, and VA3
 NY, 7/1/16 7/1/15–6/30/18 IN, NH, NJ, PA, VA, VT3,4
 RI, 7/1/16 7/1/15–6/30/18 IN, NH, NJ, PA, VA, VT3,4
 VT, 7/1/18 7/1/16–6/31/20 IN, NJ, OK, PA, VA3
Pill mill law
 MS, 3/1/11 3/1/09–2/28/13 AL, CO, ID, IN, IA, MI, NV, NY, ND, OK, PA, RI, SC, VA, WY2
 OH, 7/1/2011 7/1/09–6/30/13 AL, CO, ID, IN, IA, MA, MI, NV, NY, ND, OK, PA, RI, SC, VA, WY2
 TX, 9/1/10 9/1/08–8/31/12 AL, CO, CT, ID, IL, IN, KT, MA, MI, NV, NY, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, WV, WY2
  1. 1Treatment states transitioned from having a voluntary PDMP law in the pre-law period to a mandatory PDMP enrollment/query law in the post-law period; all treatment/control pool states had voluntary PDMP, physical exam, and doctor shopping laws—and no other laws of interest or potentially confounding laws—in effect for the entire study period
  2. 2Treatment/control pool states had voluntary PDMP, physical exam, and doctor shopping laws—and no other laws of interest or potentially confounding laws—in effect for the entire study period
  3. 3Treatment/control pool states had physical exam, doctor shopping, and mandatory PDMP query laws—and no other laws of interest or potentially confounding laws—in effect for the entire study period
  4. 4Three-year study period (1 year pre-law/2 years post-law). If a 4-year study period is applied, Indiana is the only eligible control pool state