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Table 1 Implementation outcomes and strategies

From: Implementation strategies to improve cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Implementation outcome Definitiona
 Acceptability Perception among implementation stakeholders that a given treatment, service, practice, or innovation is agreeable, palatable, or satisfactory
 Adoption Intention, initial decision, or action to try or employ an innovation or evidence-based practice
 Appropriateness Perceived fit, relevance, or compatibility of the innovation or evidence based practice setting, provider, or consumer; and/or perceived fit of innovation to address a particular issue
 Penetration Integration of a practice within a service setting and its subsystems; number of eligible persons who use a service, divided by the total number of persons eligible for the service; number of providers who deliver a given service or treatment, divided by the total number of providers trained in or expected to deliver the service
 Feasibility Extent to which a new treatment, or an innovation, can be successfully used or carried out within a given agency or setting
 Fidelity Degree to which an intervention was implemented as it was prescribed in the original protocol or as it was intended by the program developers
 Sustainability Extent to which a newly implemented treatment is maintained or institutionalized within a service setting’s ongoing, stable operations
 Implementation cost Cost impact of an implementation effort
Implementation strategy Definitiona
 Plan
  • Gather information
  • Build buy-in
  • Initiate leadership
  • Develop relationships
Help stakeholders gather data, select strategies, build buy-in, initiate leadership, and develop the relationships necessary for successful implementation
 Educate
  • Develop materials
  • Inform and influence stakeholders
Inform a range of stakeholders about the innovation and/or implementation effort
 Finance
  • Modify incentives
  • Facilitate financial support
Incentivize the use of clinical innovations and provide resources for training and ongoing support.
 Restructure Facilitate implementation by altering staffing, professional roles, physical structures, equipment, and data systems
 Quality management Put data systems and support networks in place to continually evaluate and enhance quality of care, and ensure that clinical innovations are delivered with fidelity
 Attend to policy context Encourage the promotion of clinical innovations through accrediting bodies, licensing boards, and legal system
  1. aDefinitions for implementation outcomes and strategies have been cited in Proctor et al. [37] and Powell et al. [34], respectively